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Session Overview
3.02-1: Fast Neutron Reactors – Sodium Fast Reactors - I
Tuesday, 17/Mar/2020:
11:15am - 12:45pm

Session Chair: Wolfgang Hering, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Germany
Location: L-1011

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France-Japan synthesis concept on Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor - Part 1: General Overview of the Joint Collaborative Work

Frederic Varaine1, Gilles Rodriguez1, Jean Marie Hamy2, Jean-François Dirat2, Shigenobu Kubo3, Nobuyuki Ishikawa3, Masaaki Tanaka3, Yoshio Shimakawa4, Haruo Mochida4, Ryo Shimizu4, Shinya Kosaka4, Koichi Kurita5

1CEA Cadarache DEN/DER/CPA; 2Framatome; 3JAEA; 4Mitsubishi FBR Systems Inc.; 5Mitsubishi Heavy Industries

In the frame of the France Japan agreement on nuclear collaboration, a bilateral collaboration agreement on nuclear energy was signed in March 21st 2017, including a specific chapter dedicated to Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). This agreement has set the framework to start bilateral discussion on the joint view of a SFR concept. According to this context, France (CEA and FRAMATOME) and Japan (JAEA, MHI and MFBR) have carried out studies to establish a common technical view regarding SFR concept based on a collaborative design work between France and Japan.

Based on the ASTRID600 design - corresponding to the beginning of the basic design phase of ASTRID project - Japan and France performed a common work to examine ways to develop a feasible common design concept, which could be realized both in France and in Japan.

France and Japan focused on respective design requirements in both countries. Common requirements were identified, as well as differences in safety and structural design requirements according to national standards and respective site conditions, in particular when considering seismic hazards. The teams developed common top-level design requirements (TLRs) to allow common specification data. Then collaborative work to reach common technical view was performed through the implementation of twelve France-Japan technical Working Groups.

This paper will provide an overview of this joint synthesis concept on SFR summarizing the context and objectives of this collaborative work, the definition of the TLRs and the view and perspective beyond this study. This paper (Part 1), is associated with two complementary papers, dealing respectively with core design and safety aspects (Part 2), and with the plant design concept (Part 3).

Thus, the association of these three papers is giving a comprehensive presentation of this joint work on SFR carried out from 2017 to end 2019 gathering French and Japan teams.

France-Japan synthesis concept on Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor, Part 2: Core & Safety

Kazuya Takano1, Shigeo Ohki1, Takayuki Ozawa1, Hidemasa Yamano1, Shigenobu Kubo1, Masashi Ogura2, Yumi Yamada2, Kazuya Koyama2, Koichi Kurita3, Laurent Costes4, Christophe Venard4, Bernard Carluec5, Benoit Perrin5, Denis Verrier5

1Japan Atomic Energy Agency; 2Mitsubishi FBR Systems; 3Mitsubishi Heavy Industry; 4CEA; 5Framatome

The present paper describes the collaborative activities on core & safety to reach common technical view regarding sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) concept through the implementation of France-Japan technical Working Groups. It was investigated the feasibility of ASTRID600 to qualify SFR techniques toward to commercialization. The reference core design of ASTRID600 is CFV (low void effect core) with an austenitic steel cladding. Japan has investigated the feasibility of enhanced high burnup core and fuel using Oxide Dispersion-Strengthened steel cladding on ASTRID600, considering Japanese core performance targets. This core almost satisfies required design targets except for the thermal design for which it would be necessary to optimize the power distribution. Consequently, in case of applying the French safety requirements and partly relaxed design targets, it has been clarified the high burn-up CFV core is feasible in Japan. Regarding the passive shutdown capabilities, a preliminary analysis has been performed regarding Self-Actuated Shutdown System (SASS), that is a complementary safety device (CSD) in Japanese safety approach, for ASTRID600 in place of RBH (hydraulically suspended absorber rod, that is a CSD in French safety approach) in order to investigate a potential as the common design. The preliminary analysis shows good confidence on ability of SASS to satisfy the main requirements. The mitigation measures of ASTRID600 against severe accidents, such as the core catcher and the molten corium discharge assembly, as well as the sodium void reactivity features of the CFV core, are appreciated to be prospective for IVR (In Vessel Retention) strategy in both countries. For ASTRID150 with a reduced reactor power and enhanced experimental capabilities, specific items have been identified to achieve qualification data necessary for the future commercial SFR according to French and Japanese strategies on core & safety.

France-Japan synthesis concept on Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor - Part 3: Plant system

Atsushi Kato1, Tomohiko Yamamoto1, Masato Ando1, Yoshitaka Chikazawa1, Hisatomo Murakami2, Tohru Iitsuka2, Kazuhiro Oyama2, Fumio Kaneko2, Koichi Higurashi2, Koichi Kurita3, Frederic Chanteclair4, Marie-Sophie Chenaud4, Franck Dechelette4, Edouard Hourcade4, David Plancq4, Gilles Rodriguez4, Bernard Carluec5, Alexandre Dauphin5, Jean Francois Dirat5, Julien Hirn5

1Japan Atomic Energy Agency; 2MFBR; 3MHI; 4CEA; 5Framatome

This provides an overview of plant system studies conducted to establish a common technical view regarding Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor concept between France and Japan based on ASTRID600 and the new concept with smaller output (ASTRID150).

One of important issues on the reactor structure design is to enhance seismic capability to be tolerable even against strong earthquake such as in Japan. For improvement of earthquake resistance, a concept of High Frequency Design (HFD) is shared, in which the natural frequency of the reactor structure should be higher than that of peak acceleration of vertical floor seismic response with a horizontal seismic isolation system. The design options related to HFD have been examined and design recommendations are established for common view taking into account the differences of earthquake level in each country.

ASTRID600 adopted gas Power Conversion System to strictly eliminate the chemical reaction risks due to the proximity of sodium and water in the steam generator units. On the other hand, steam generator (SG) is thought to be a concept with high Technical Readiness Level and is a reference option in Japan and a backup option in France. Then, design comparison of single monolithic SG with single-walled helical coil tube was mainly conducted in this study from the viewpoint of safety and economic competitiveness.

Common concept of a decay heat removal system is discussed to achieve Practical Elimination of Loss Of Heat Removal Function. Fuel handling system studies are performed to eliminate Ex-Vessel Storage of spent fuels to reduce the construction cost. An adequate confinement system is investigated to achieve practical elimination of large radiological release to the environment even under the condition of core destructive accident.

Based on studies, common qualification needs for ASTRID600 and a commercial reactor were investigated concerning an impact of concept change from ASTRID600 to ASTRID150.

Technical and economical features of commercial Sodium Fast Reactor in France

David Settimo1, Remy Dupraz2, Francoise Jadot3, Gerard Prele1, Noel Camarcat1

1Electricite de France (EDF); 2Framatome; 3CEA

The French nuclear policy for closed fuel cycle provides the deployment of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFRs) at the end of the 21st century. The deployment of this technology aims to balance the spent PWR MOX fuel inventory and to use the recycled Uranium reprocessed from UOX or MOX spent fuel. Fast reactors can use the plutonium produced by Light Water Reactor (or by themselves) indefinitely, so they represent a key link in the closed-cycle strategy.

For the balancing of the PWR MOX inventory in France, around 2000 MW of SFRs are necessary, in a predominantly PWR fleet, with a total nuclear power (PWR + SFR) of 60 GW in the energy mix. So two 1000 MW SFR reactors would constitute a first step towards the closed fuel cycle.

The paper aims to present a study conducted by the engineering departments of EDF, Framatome and CEA in order to define a functional description and a sketch of the commercial French SFR 1000.

This pre-conceptual design study has been carried out with the benefits of ASTRID project, which conducted the basic design of an industrial Generation IV SFR demonstrator.

The presentation will include:

• Technical requirements of Commercial SFR 1000.

• Plant description, technical features with an underlining of what is transposed (or not) from ASTRID design.

• Economic assessment (investment cost) of this SFR 1000.

In a second part of the paper, we will present an economical comparison of a NOAK commercial SFR in France and an equivalent PWR, based on the evaluation investment cost of the SFR 1000 and a commercial EPR.

Finally, we will examine some technical proposals in order to reduce the cost of the commercial SFR, given with the needs of R&D or design assessment to be performed

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