Conference Agenda

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Session Overview
Session
Poster introductions 07: IAQ, health, sleep quality
Time:
Thursday, 26/Aug/2021:
11:35am - 12:00pm

Session Chair: Dr. Jiyun Song, University of Hong Kong
Location: Room 2 - Room 011, Building: 116

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Presentations
11:35am - 11:38am

Modelling mean radiant temperature in outdoor environments: contrasting the approaches of different simulation tools

Elena Badino, Maria Ferrara, Louena Shtrepi, Enrico Fabrizio, Arianna Astolfi, Valentina Serra

Politecnico di Torino, Italy

Global warming and increasing urbanization are expected to threaten public health and well-being in cities, by increasing the heat stress perceived by the city inhabitants. Outdoor thermal comfort conditions are influenced by the material and the geometrical features of the surrounding urban fabric at both the urban and building scales. In built environments, performance-aware design choices related to street paving or building façade can enhance outdoor thermal comfort in their surroundings, thus contributing to protecting the health and well-being of the urban population. Reliable estimations of outdoor thermal comfort conditions are required to evaluate and control the micro-bioclimatic influences of different design choices. The mean radiant temperature is the physical variable that has the greatest influence on outdoor thermal comfort conditions during summertime. However, its calculation is complex due to the heterogeneity of urban environments. Since the available simulation tools employ different approaches and assumptions to calculate the mean radiant temperature in outdoor settings, potential users need to be aware of their different capabilities. This research compares the calculation procedures and assumptions of different performance simulation tools (i.e. ENVI-met, TRNSYS, Ladybug Tools, CitySim, and SOLENE-microclimat) to predict the mean radiant temperature in outdoor spaces, based on the available information in the scientific literature. Their ability to account for different radiative components in both the longwave and shortwave spectra is summarized, and practical information regarding the degree of interoperability with the modelling environments and the level of geometrical detail of the virtual model supported by the tools is provided. This work aims to help potential users in the selection of the most appropriate performance tool, based on the requirement of their projects.



11:38am - 11:41am

Difference of Cooling Use during Sleep between Elderly and Young Peopl

Noriko Umemiya, Kae Terao, Yuhang Chen

Osaka City University, Japan

In Japan, nearly 60% of heatstroke occurrences in recent decades have involved people older than 65 years old. Such occurrences are expected to become increasingly common because the relative frequency of elderly people is increasing. Moreover, heat affects them more than it affects young people. This study surveyed the actual use of cooling by elderly people at sleep time. After investigating cooling effects on sleep quality and thermal sensation, we compared the results to those found for younger people.

During five years, we surveyed Osaka apartment residents: 65 elderly people (≥65 yr) on 392 nights and 113 younger people (<65 yr) on 561 nights. The respective average ages of elderly and younger people were 73.2 yr (SD 6.6 yr) and 45.7 years old (SD 11.0 yr).

Results revealed the following important points. 1) Ratios of cooling use at sleep time were 30.8% for elderly people and 57.4% for younger people (p<0.0001). The respective ratios of natural ventilation use at sleep time were 39.9% and 32.4% (p=0.02). Elderly people prefer open windows to using air-conditioners. 2) Average wet bulb globe temperatures (WBGTs) of bed rooms during sleep were 26.9°C for elderly people and 26.4°C for younger people (p=0.0009). 3) Clothing insulation was 0.35 clo for elderly people and 0.30 clo for younger people (p<0.0001). 4) Elderly people feel warmer than younger people (p=0.01). Nevertheless, elderly people feel more thermally comfortable (p= 0.013). Furthermore, total OSA scale sleep scores were 49.7 for elderly people and 48.5 for younger people (p=0.013). No difference was found for the frequency of night waking or the OSA sleep maintenance score, but the fatigue recovery score showed the greatest difference between elderly and younger people. 5) Sleep quality is highest when sleeping with windows open.



11:41am - 11:44am

Improving indoor thermal comfort, air quality and the health of older adults through environmental policies in London

Ioanna Tsoulou1, Phil Symonds1, Jonathon Taylor2, Nahid Mohajeri1, Michael Davies1

1UCL, United Kingdom; 2Tampere University, Finland

As the impacts of climate change accelerate and with more than half of the world’s population now living in cities, local governments are progressively adopting action plans to protect their populations and infrastructure and ensure a healthy and sustainable urban living. To that end, the city of London has introduced a series of environmental strategies that aim at reducing among others, overheating and air pollution. Minimizing the heat/pollution/health impacts for disadvantaged groups, such as older adults, is an immediate priority, given their interfaces with COVID-19 and importance for pandemic recovery. In this work, we evaluated the potential of selected London’s environmental strategies in reducing indoor overheating and air pollution, as well as the associated mortality of seniors. Our approach considered mobility restrictions posed to the general population and seniors due to the pandemic. Therefore, we first reviewed London’s environmental strategies and identified 5 high-level broad proposals that prioritize the transformation of residential environments for thermal comfort and air quality improvement. We then developed specific scenarios tied to each strategy and tested future reductions on indoor overheating (>27C0) and indoor pollutant exposures from outdoor sources (PM2.5 and NO2) through EnergyPlus models and associated senior mortality. Lastly, we picked the scenarios that yielded the highest impacts, based on which, we formulated concrete and realistic policy recommendations for Greater London. While our analysis is still ongoing, preliminary results suggest that the implementation of 10 environmental policies related to changes in shading, insulation and heating/cooling of residential environments, and the greening of roofs could result in substantial senior morality reduction by 2050. With roughly 25% of adults to be aged over 65 in the UK by 2050, our work highlights the immediate need for city-level policies to prioritize vulnerable populations and address indoor modifications, given the importance of indoor spaces for older adults.



11:44am - 11:47am

Curing building related illnesses by using an emissions barrier

Lennart Larsson1, Johan Mattsson2, Timo Lehtimaa3

1Lund University, Sweden; 2cTrap Ltd, Sweden; 3Sulin Oy, Finland

Spread of chemical and biological emissions from construction materials of a building into the indoor air may result in symptoms such as asthma, skin and eye irritation, fatigue etc. Here we describe three cases where an emissions barrier was used to stop and bind emissions without affecting the building structure.

A PVC flooring had been glued onto a concrete slab which had become moist through water diffusion. The air concentration of 2-ethylhexanol, a compound formed from hydrolysis of glue and/or phthalates of PVC floorings, was 63 µg/m3 (directional measurement). The barrier was attached onto the existing flooring, and previously reported health symptoms disappeared. 3 months after barrier had been installed the air concentration was 1.5 µg/m3, a value which persisted in a follow-up study 6 years later.

There was a disturbing smell in a wooden summer house which had previously been treated with chlorophenol-containing preservatives. The ceiling, walls and floor in the bedroom, but not in the living-room, were covered with the barrier. Tetrachlorophenol, trichloroanisole, and pentachloroanisole were detected in the air of the living-room, but only tetrachlorophenol was found in the bedroom, at an air concentration 93% lower than in the living room. Also, the mouldy odour in the bedroom disappeared.

A building where a creosote-based tar layer had been attached onto a concrete slab as a moisture barrier showed an indoor air PAH concentration of 1726 ng/m3. The disturbing PAH smell inside the building persisted even after removal of the tar. However, after the barrier had been installed the smell disappeared and the PAH air concentration decreased to 139 ng/m3 thus corresponding to a reduction of 92%.

In summary, use of an emissions barrier may provide an efficient, economic, quick, and environment-friendly way of ensuring a healthy indoor air.



11:47am - 11:50am

How do occupants rate the bedroom air quality?

Chenxi Liao1,2, Xiaojun Fan2, Mariya Petrova Bivolarova2, Chandra Sekhar3, Mizuho Akimoto4, Jelle Laverge1, Pawel Wargocki2

1Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Ghent University, Belgium; 2International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark; 3Department of Building, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 4Department of Architecture, Waseda University, Japan

Poor air quality has been shown to reduce sleep quality. There is a limited number of studies reporting how occupants rate the air quality in their bedrooms. The present study sheds the light on this issue. It was conducted in actual bedrooms and asked occupants to rate air quality once awake in the morning using an online sleep diary. The study was done in Denmark during the heating season. 178 responses from 82 subjects were received. Nearly all respondents rated air quality as acceptable. 28% indicated that the air was stuffy. Measuring CO2 and description of bedrooms would help to explain these results. They are analysed at the moment and will be reported in the subsequent papers.



 
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