Conference Agenda

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Session Overview
Session
Poster introductions 02: IEQ & pollutants
Time:
Wednesday, 25/Aug/2021:
11:15am - 11:40am

Session Chair: Dr. Marc Abadie, La Rochelle Université
Location: Room 2 - Room 011, Building: 116

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Presentations
11:15am - 11:18am

Deterioration of PVC floor covering due alkaline moisture

Virpi Leivo, Essi Sarlin, Jommi Suonketo, Jussa Pikkuvirta, Matti Pentti

Tampere university, Finland

Concrete as alkaline (pH ~12,5) and moist material can cause deterioration of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) floor coverings and adhesives through alkaline hydrolysis. Attempts to prevent alkaline hydrolysis have mainly been made by installing PVC floor coverings above ‘dry-enough’ concrete or by using self-levelling low-alkali (pH ~11…11,5) screeds between concrete and floor coverings. In this study, screed, adhesive and PVC floor covering combinations have been varied by using different floor covering conditions in laboratory test series. Moisture level of concrete during installing floor covering (floor covering criteria or RHcrit of the so-called equivalent depth) has been varied from RH80% to RH93%. The screed material or pH of screed material has been varied from gypsum-based screed (pH less than 10) to cement-based screed or no screed (pH ~12,5). VOC emissions have been analysed from material samples (Bulk-VOC) and from surface emission samples (Flec-VOC). The test samples have been measured for two to five years after installing floor covering. According to the results, a 5 mm layer of low-alkali screed (pH less than 11,5) will effectively protect PVC flooring against alkaline hydrolysis. Also it could be concluded that the pH level immediately under floor covering has a better correlation with VOC emission than the RH of concrete in the moment of installing the floor covering.



11:18am - 11:21am

Relationship between indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) concentration in the educational building

Tomasz Kisilewicz, Katarzyna Nowak-Dzieszko

Cracow University of Technology, Poland

As most of the people spend about 85-90% of their time indoors, the understanding of the relationship between indoor and outdoor particle concentration becomes very important, especially when the concentration levels of pollutions outside are very high. This situation can be observed in Cracow. A city of great historical value and the former capital of Poland, is located in a very large valley. This unfavorable location makes natural ventilation of the city very difficult and for many days of the year the airspeed is very low here. Due to the wide use of coal for apartment heating and intense urban traffic in the historic city center, emission of pollutants is high, which causes a high concentration of atmospheric particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5. Effective ventilation of building interior is to maintain good indoor air quality by, among others, limiting the concentration of carbon dioxide, air humidity, chemical pollution, etc. At the same time, during periods of very high atmospheric PM concentration, the intended air exchange should be significantly reduced. The relation between internal and external concentration of particulate matters can be described by the parameter I/O (indoor/outdoor) ratio which varies considerably due to the air exchange rates. In Poland during winter months it’s lower than 1 as the concentration of particulate matters outside is high. The article presents the results of the measurements and analysis of the I/O ratio in the educational buildings in Cracow during winter season. Simultaneous measurements of particulate matters concentration inside the room and in external environment proved that I/O ratio varies considerably due to the external conditions fluctuations. The high PM concentration outside the building has a decisive impact on indoor air quality, especially when there are no sources of contamination inside.



11:21am - 11:24am

HIEQLab, a facility to support multi-domain human-centered research on building performance and environmental quality

Anna Pellegrino, Valentina Serra, Fabio Favoino, Arianna Astolfi, Luigi Giovannini, Andrè Clos

Department of Energy, Politecnico di Torino, Italy

Buildings quality and performance play a major role in our societies. They are responsible for a significant share of the global energy consumption and, due to the large amount of time people spend in indoor environments, they greatly affect human health and well-being. Therefore, enhancing the building occupants’ well-being through high quality indoor environments is nowadays becoming a target for most of the stakeholders involved in the construction sector.

Researches on building environmental quality and performance can be performed through different approaches: (i) dynamic numerical simulations, which are effective to quickly compare results for different building configurations or climate conditions, but are limited in including the “occupant factor”; (ii) in-field studies, which allow analyzing realistic conditions, but usually with poor-controlled indoor environments; (iii) full scale test facilities and living labs, which allow carrying out studies under controlled realistic conditions, directly involving the final users. This last approach can significantly improve the scientific research on energy efficient and healthy buildings by fostering a synergistic and user-centered innovation process.

Within this context, at Politecnico di Torino, the TEBE group (Technology, Energy, Building and Environment) has designed and is realizing a full-scale facility, aimed at developing and testing building components (eg. advanced façade systems), building systems (HVAC, lighting) and control strategies in a completely controlled, real environment. This facility will offer the possibility of involving occupants and studying users’ responses and behavior in long-term experimental researches. In addition, it will allow multi-domain studies, including thermal, air quality, acoustic and lighting aspects while introducing innovative approaches to control and monitor environmental, energy performances and occupant behavior.

The paper describes the features of the facility, and the challenges it was conceived to face. Furthermore, it presents the preliminary analyses aimed at characterizing the variability of indoor comfort conditions.



11:24am - 11:27am

I-CUB: ‘Indoor Climate-Users-Buildings’: Relationship between measured and perceived indoor air quality in dwellings

Sarka Langer1, Theofanis Psomas2, Despoina Teli2

1IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden; 2Division of Building Services Engineering, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96, Göteborg, Sweden

Investigations of indoor environmental quality have recently moved away from either measurements or questionnaire surveys to a combined methodology of both. In this study, we have used data from the national survey of the Swedish housing stock BETSI (Buildings, Energy consumption, Technical Status and Indoor environment) conducted in the 2007/2008 heating season. The survey consisted of inspections of the status of the housing stock including building characteristics, measurement of selected indoor air pollutants, air exchange rates and indoor climate parameters, as well as an extensive questionnaire survey on the occupants’ perception of their dwellings.

The data from the survey used in this analysis include measured concentrations of NO2, TVOCs and formaldehyde, and responses from the occupants on their perception of indoor air quality (IAQ) in their home. The concentrations of the air pollutants (continuous scale), were aggregated into one Indoor Air Pollution Index (IAPI). The IAPI can reach values between 0 (excellent IAQ) and 10 (poor IAQ). The perceived IAQ was assessed by the occupants on a 5-point category scale: very good – good – acceptable – poor – very poor.

The sample of valid pairs of measurements and responses consisted of 145 responses from 77 single -family houses and 76 responses from 58 apartments. Analysis of the relationship between the IAPI and the perception showed that 92% of the respondents in single-family houses perceived the IAQ as very good or good and 8% as acceptable, on the entire scale of the IAPIs. In the apartments, the ratings ‘very good’ and ‘good’ accounted for 58% of the responses, 33% voted ‘acceptable’ and 9 % for ‘poor’ and ‘very poor’. In both cases, the distributions of IAPIs were shifted to lower values (good IAQ). Analysis of IAPI-medians showed no statistically significant differences between and among the air quality perception ratings.



11:27am - 11:30am

Experimental Research of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Formaldehyde Dynamic Adsorption

Shan Chen, Kan Zu, Menghao Qin, Lei Fang

Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, 2800, Denmark

Formaldehyde is a highly toxic and carcinogenic indoor air pollutant. Traditional nano-porous materials, such as activated carbon, clay, alumina, and zeolite, were widely used to control the indoor formaldehyde concentration. However, their regeneration temperature is normally very high (>100 0C). Under this situation, a new type of porous material, Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs), comes into view. Many MOFs have a high surface-to-volume ratio, high adsorption capacity, and low regeneration temperature. Nowadays, researchers are mainly focusing on formaldehyde selectivity and detection using MOFs in low humidity circumstances. This study carried out a series of experiments to explore the formaldehyde dynamic adsorption characterizations of MOF-100(Fe), MOF-160(Al), and MOF-520(Al) and to compare with the formaldehyde adsorption capacity of activated carbon. In experiments, the formaldehyde is generated by formalin solution, dried by calcium chloride, and driven through different MOFs by nitrogen. The results indicate that MOFs show great potential for indoor air pollutant removal, which are served as not only excellent materials in gas storage and separation but also promising materials for the adsorption of VOCs.



11:30am - 11:33am

Application of developed facade panel from recycled CDW: A case study

Marina Bagarić, Ivana Banjad Pečur, Bojan Milovanović

University of Zagreb, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Croatia

Using waste materials for production of sustainable exterior façade panel, that can be recycled at the end of its life cycle as part of a circular economy model, can significantly reduce environmental footprint of buildings and help preserve natural resources. The envelope system under consideration is a ventilated prefabricated wall panel from recycled construction and demolition waste (CDW). In this paper, hygrothermal simulations together with field monitoring of hygrothermal performance, energy consumption, indoor comfort and air quality in real environment conditions have been presented. Results show that developed panel is a robust, moisture-safe panel suitable for constructing energy high performing buildings. Thermal discomfort in summer is related to the architectural design of the building.



11:33am - 11:36am

A large field study of relationship between indoor and outdoor climate in residential buildings

Ricardo Forgiarini Rupp1, Gianluca Trotta2, Jørn Toftum1, Rune Korsholm Andersen1

1International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark; 2Department of the Built Environment, The Faculty of Engineering and Science, Aalborg University Copenhagen

High-quality data on indoor climate and energy collected in buildings is required to deepen our understanding of building performance. The aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the indoor and outdoor climate in Danish residential buildings. Field data was collected in 45 apartments from April 2019 to November 2020. Internet of things (IoT) devices were installed to record the temperature, relative humidity and CO2 concentration in the central corridor of each apartment. High CO2 concentration (above 1,000ppm) and overheating were observed in the apartments. The changeover between the heating mode and the free running mode occurred between 11.1 to 13.6 ºC of outdoor air temperature. The temperature setpoints of the heating systems were around 20.6-22.3 ºC, which could be useful values to feed building simulations in order to achieve more realistic predictions of indoor climate and energy. The results of this study improve our understanding of indoor environmental quality in residential buildings at a national level.



 
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