Conference Agenda

Overview and details of the sessions of this conference. Please select a date or location to show only sessions at that day or location. Please select a single session for detailed view (with abstracts and downloads if available).

Session Overview
Session 07: Impact of climate & Adaptation
Wednesday, 25/Aug/2021:
4:00pm - 5:30pm

Session Chair: Dr. Michael Lacasse, National Research Council Canada
Location: Room 3 - Room 013, Building: 116

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4:00pm - 4:15pm

The impact of climate change on heritage located in Iran (Ghiasieh school)

Hamed Hedayatnia, Marijke Steeman, Nathan Van Den Bossche

Ghent University, Belgium

The first step to preserve the historical heritage against global warming effects is finding how this phenomenon affects material degradation processes. Due to the vulnerability of Iranian heritage to climate change and lack of proper literature, the research on climate change impacts on Timurid heritage buildings located in Iran has been determined as our research goal by studying weather data, HAM simulations, and different damage criteria and parameters critical to construction materials. This paper aims to introduce an appropriate method to study the impact of climate change on historical heritage buildings as the primary goal through analysing weather data and assess the risk damage criteria plus critical parameters to the building construction by choosing a Timurid historical school as a case study to get a better insight about the current climate change effects on building components. Our research shows that the significantly rising air temperature and wind speed, along with reduced rainfall and humidity, causes a notable decrease in building envelope moisture content in addition to an increase in wind-driven rain intensity and hydrated-salt crystallisation damages during the studied period. These fluctuations perhaps played a key role in current damages to the heritage, and their continuation and expansion in the future, as the models have predicted, can lead to irreparable damages to the building.

4:15pm - 4:30pm

Effects of climate change on the moisture performance and durability of brick veneer walls on frame construction in Canada

MAURICE DEFO, Lacasse Michael, Lin Wang

National Research Council, Canada

The objective of this study was to assess the potential effects of climate change on the moisture performance and durability of brick veneer walls of wood frame construction on the basis of results derived from hygrothermal simulations. One-dimensional simulations were run using DELPHIN 5.9 for selected moisture reference years of the 15 realizations of modelled historical (1986-2016) and future (2062-2092) climate of 12 cities located across Canada. The mould growth index on the outer layer of OSB sheathing panel was used to compare the moisture performance under historical and future periods. Results for the base design meeting the minimum requirements of the National Building Code of Canada showed that cities having a reduced annual rainfall within the interior of the country are less likely to develop mould growth under historical and future periods whereas cities in coastal and interior areas present a heightened risk to mould growth under both historical and future periods. The cities in eastern coastal areas being at higher risk, given the increased intensity of wind-driven rain in these locations. For cities located in the interior area that had a heightened risk to mould growth, an increase in the degree of air exchange in the drainage cavity could help minimize this risk. On the west coast, a solution could be to increase the size of the drainage cavity from 25 to 38 mm whilst ensuring a sufficient air flow rate. On the east coast, a solution could be to increase the drainage cavity to 50 mm with a sufficient air flow rate coupled with other measures to reduce the wind-driven rain deposition rate.

4:30pm - 4:45pm

Influence of climate change on the energy performance assessment of NZEB houses

Arnold Janssens, Elisa Vandenbussche, Kjartan Van den Brande, Wolf Bracke, Marc Delghust

Ghent University UGent, Belgium

The Energy Performance of Buildings (EPB) regulations aim to reduce primary energy use and carbon dioxide emissions of buildings, which are the result of creating a comfortable and healthy indoor environment. In this study, the influence of climate change on the EPB calculation results is analysed. The results of the analysis may be used by authorities to better define nearly zero energy building (NZEB) requirements today.
Meteonorm has been used to simulate future climate change based on IPCC scenarios and urban heat island effect. Two sets of climatic data with average and extreme temperature and radiation values for 2050 for Uccle (Belgium) have been developed. These future climates have been implemented in a Revit- and Excel-based tool that calculates the stochastic variation of energy performance for six different dwelling typologies, based on the semi-steady state energy use calculation method. Four different packages of measures to achieve NZEB performance (thermal insulation, energy efficient ventilation, renewable energy technologies,…) have been considered.
The results for primary energy use, overheating indicator and net energy use for heating and cooling have been analysed. As may be expected, climate change is found to lead to an increase in overheating risk, an increase in cooling energy use, and a decrease in heating energy use in the analysed dwellings. Since in most cases the decrease in heating energy use outweighs the increase in cooling energy use, the total primary energy use decreases in most cases for the 2050 future climate. The apartment typology appears to be more sensitive to overheating. As a result, the primary energy use in NZEB apartment buildings may increase in the future as a result of climate change, particularly when NZEB is mainly achieved by reducing the net energy demand for heating. Other typologies may behave similarly, depending on the potential for ventilative cooling.

4:45pm - 5:00pm

A climate-based moisture index approach for hygrothermal analysis in Australia

Haniya Javed1, Arianna Brambilla1, Marcus Strang2

1The University of Sydney, Australia; 2The University of Queensland, Australia

In Australia, one-third of new constructions are affected by condensation and about 50% of buildings suffer from mould risk, mainly due to inappropriate design and management strategies. Despite the potential structural damage and serious health hazards, there is a lack of preventive moisture management strategies at the legislative level. The first hygrothermal management provisions were adopted in the National Construction Code only in 2019, with very general indications that correlate the breathability of the membranes with the climate zone. However, the building code identifies only eight zones for the entire Australia, which were originally developed for thermal analysis and energy efficiency provisions. The result is a coarse climate grid that clusters locations with highly variable humidity conditions. This paper undertakes a semi-empirical approach to identify whether the current climate zones are suitable for hygrothermal purposes. This research represents the first step towards an Australian-specific moisture risks management framework, and it advances the discussion about the suitability of the current hygrothermal design and construction policy and practices. The outcomes reveal the highly variable moisture indices obtained for the different representative cities, affirming the inappropriate use of existing climate zone clustering for hygrothermal assessment purposes.

5:00pm - 5:15pm

Thermal performance of a novel lightweight emergency construction system in different climates

Marco D'Orazio, Gianluca Maracchini

Università Politecnica delle Marche, Italy

Prefabricated, lightweight, and modular construction systems are increasingly proposed all around the world as emergency housing and facilities (due to natural disasters, pandemics, etc.) and as affordable housing solutions in countries with increasing housing demand. In these frameworks, these construction systems are generally preferred to traditional ones due to their quicker construction processes, cheapness, higher portability, and adaptability.

Due to their low thermal inertia, however, these buildings are often characterized by poor thermal and energy performance in hot climates due to indoor overheating. As a result, the possible application of passive cooling measures is often investigated to improve their thermal and energy performance. Among passive cooling strategies, the use of cool materials has gained more and more attention in the last years, since presenting some advantages in terms of ease of application and cost, which makes this solution suitable even in post-disaster scenarios. However, still few studies have investigated the impact of this passive strategy on the thermal performance of this kind of buildings.

Following a previous experimental study, this work presents the results of a numerical campaign aimed at evaluating the impact of cooling materials on the thermal and energy performance of a novel lightweight 3D-reinforced EPS-based construction system, named HOMEDONE, recently used to build affordable housing in developing countries and emergency architectures in post-disaster/pandemic scenarios. First, a numerical model of a HOMEDONE building was created and calibrated on experimental data. Then, the thermal and energy performance of a typical HOMEDONE building under different climatic locations was numerically evaluated for the first time in the literature. Finally, the impact of using cooling materials on the building thermal and energy performance is investigated. The results allowed to highlight the potential of cooling materials in reducing the cooling energy demand of the studied construction system.

5:15pm - 5:30pm

A multi-year comparative analysis of green and conventional roof thermal performance under temperate climate conditions

Peter Gunn, H. Burak Gunay, Paul J. Van Geel

Carleton University, Canada

In recent decades, increasing energy efficiency of the built environment has been recognized as a pathway to bring Canada 10% closer to its 2030 Paris Climate Accord commitment. In fact, the development of net-zero energy building codes is currently underway in Canada, with the hope that they will be adopted by provinces and territories by the end of the decade. Although new building codes could require expensive mechanical and electrical upgrades, the use of innovative envelope constructions, such as green roofs, will play a vital role in bringing buildings into compliance. Research suggests that—relative to conventional roofs—green roofs can significantly reduce rooftop heat exchange in moderate climates; however, limited research exists on the performance of green roofs in colder climates. This paper analyzes the comparative performance of two side-by-side roof assemblies: a conventional roof and a green roof located in the temperate climate of Ottawa, Canada. Using two years’ worth of heat flux, temperature, and solar radiation data, we analyze variations in the incremental thermal benefit of the green roof relative to the conventional roof. We discuss factors contributing to these variations such as rain, snow cover, ice buildup, and substrate freezing. Our results indicate that the green roof under investigation reduced thermal transmittance by 41% on average across two years. Although the percent benefits were much higher during the summer months, reductions in thermal transmittance were consistently above 14% throughout both years, indicating green roofs may be an appropriate alternative to conventional roofs in climates with hot, humid summers and cold, snowy winters.

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