Conference Agenda

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Session Overview
Session
Session 16: Cold & Arctic climate
Time:
Thursday, 26/Aug/2021:
10:30am - 11:15am

Session Chair: Prof. Eva B Møller, Technical University of Denmark
Location: Room 4 - Room 015, Building: 116

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Presentations
10:30am - 10:45am

Can collected hygrothermal data illustrate observed problems of the façade? – A case study from Greenland

Naja Kastrup Friis, Eva B. Møller, Tove Lading

DTU, Denmark

Most new materials and designs have not been tested for Arctic conditions. Due to the extreme climate in Greenland, buildings are more vulnerable to faults in the design or construction. This leads to situations, where even minor errors can result in failures like mould growth, discomfort and unnecessary heat loss. It can be difficult to identify where the error lies; whether it is in the design or because of bad workmanship. However, this information is valuable to improve the quality of the buildings in the future. But what actions can help with this identification?

The paper describes a case study from Nuuk, Greenland, where a new insulation system was used. Residents were complaining about draft and cold areas. Often complaints like these are treated by measuring the indoor temperature over some time to determine if the residents’ complaints are justified. In this case, the owner chose a more thorough investigation to pinpoint the problems and determine the cause, in particular whether the system was unsuited for Greenlandic conditions or the unfamiliar system suffered from faulty installation. The investigation revealed that inaccurate use of the insulation system led to several problems. The problems were identified by thermography, momentary observations and dialogue with owners and residents. However, the causes were mainly found through photos taken during the building period.

The examination of the buildings was made in February 2019, and coincidentally hourly temperature and relative humidity has been collected from the exterior walls of the buildings since September 2018. The data collection was installed to examine how the new insulation system performed in an Arctic setting. This paper discusses whether these measurements support the issues identified in February 2019, and therefore if this kind of general surveillance of exterior walls can be used to determine the total performance of an exterior wall.



10:45am - 11:00am

Moisture related challenges in the Greenlandic building sector – results from a survey

Ernst Jan de Place Hansen

Aalborg University, Denmark

The building industry is booming in the larger cities of Greenland; there is a need for housing due to migration from smaller settlements to the larger cities. Additionally, the building stock in Greenland is in urgent need of renovation, mainly due to the combination of extreme weather conditions and the lack of tradition in Greenland to maintain buildings. The harsh climate with short summers and long periods of cold weather combined with occasionally high wind speed and precipitation makes it difficult to prevent moisture problems during the construction phase, resulting in high drying costs. These challenges highlight the need for guidance on how to handle moisture especially in the construction phase, both during renovation or when erecting new buildings.

To prepare the guidance, a survey has been carried out among representatives from the building sector in Greenland. This includes consulting architects and engineers, contractors, clients, local and national authorities, and housing associations. Focus has been on identifying challenges related to moisture in the construction phase, including whether challenges are different in different parts of Greenland or dependent of the time of year. The survey also includes questions related to specific technical solutions, e.g. crawl spaces, from where the respondents get their knowledge about moisture-safe constructions, and what kind of information is missing in relation to moisture-safe construction in Greenland.

The paper will present the outcome of the survey. Based on the results a guideline will be prepared as an appendix to the Greenlandic building regulations, at present being revised. The inspiration for the guideline comes from a similar guideline for the Danish building regulations, prepared 10 years ago.



11:00am - 11:15am

Weather and indoor climate in Greenland

Eva B Møller1, Jonas Helgason2

1Technical University of Denmark, Denmark; 2Inuplan, Greenland

To make a hygrothermal assessment of a building construction weather files are needed, so are information on indoor moisture load. Both are only to some extend available for Greenlandic conditions. This paper describes a project that had a twofold aim: 1) create weather files for four different cities in Greenland to see how they differ and thereby if it is necessary to treat these cities as different climate zones. 2) To determine the typical moisture load in Greenlandic dwelling to see if an international standard like EN ISO 13788 is applicable in Greenland when describing indoor moisture load.

The four chosen cities are placed at the west coast of Greenland, from the south to the middle of Greenland, covering an area where approximately 90 % of the Greenlandic population lives. Hourly weather data of the last 10 years for the four cities were obtained from the meteorological institutes of Denmark and Greenland, from this a reference year with hourly values was created for each city.

Five dwellings were chosen in each city to assess the moisture load, temperature and relative humidity was measured hourly in the living rooms of these dwellings. Furthermore, outside temperature and relative humidity was measured in the five cities.

There were difficulties in creating reference years, as the weather data were not complete, but it was possible to create reference years and detect important differences between the cities. Furthermore, compared to monthly averages from the period 1961-1990, temperature has increased 1-2 °C supporting global warming.

The moisture load in the dwellings were scattered in humidity class 1-4, similar to what has been measured in Danish dwellings, consequently EN ISO 13788 may be applicable in Greenland.



 
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