Conference Agenda

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Session Overview
Session
Poster introductions 15: Building envelope
Time:
Wednesday, 25/Aug/2021:
11:15am - 11:40am

Session Chair: Prof. Staf Roels, KU Leuven
Location: Room 3 - Room 013, Building: 116

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Presentations
11:15am - 11:18am

Facade Design Process to Establish and Achieve Net Zero Carbon Building Targets

Andrea Zani, Teni Ladipo, Tania Cortes, Matthew Tee, Carmelo Galante

Eckersley O'Callaghan

As more stringent building energy codes and sustainability certification goals have become more prevalent in recent years, a focus for designers has been reducing the operational energy to reach net-zero energy targets. More recently, as the efficiency in operational energy use has increased significantly, the focus is moving towards the environmental impact of building materials, primarily reflected in the embodied energy and emissions, and the potential (re)life options that allow circular material flows and reduced global warming potential.

Due to the significant impact of the facade in influencing operational and embodied carbon emissions of a building, there is a great potential to minimise carbon with material and performance changes to a façade. However, while there is a great opportunity to reduce both parameters through facade design, operation and embodied carbon must not be assessed in isolation due to potentially conflicting impacts performance criteria and/or material specification choices can have on energy consumption and embodied carbon. Therefore, finding the right balance between the two is crucial to reach strategically impactful and complimentary design choices.

This paper investigates a methodology applied during early and advanced design development phases to assess and compare different façade typologies carbon emissions. Embodied carbon is evaluated through LCA analysis, and operational carbon is analysed during the service life through shoe-box energy simulation.

The design process was applied to a case study building in central London, UK. A set of performance criteria, including Global Warming Potential and Energy Use Intensity, were applied to compare standard and low carbon strategies over the building’s service life to understand the overall carbon balance impact.

Results show that the balance between opaque and glazing plays a significant role in overall carbon emissions and that light-weight façade types may not necessarily provide the most favourable solution when considering equivalent performance and service life.



11:18am - 11:21am

Microclimate measurements in ventilated air gaps – instrumentation and first result

Petra Rüther, Lars Gullbrekken, Odne Oksavik, Alessandro Nocente

SINTEF, Norway

Ventilated façade constructions are a much-used solution in the Nordic countries. The façade is constructed as a two-step tightening, where the façade cladding acts as a rain screen. Placed underneath the façade cladding there is an air cavity to ventilate the air gap and drain excess moisture. The air gap is followed by a wind barrier layer, that can both consist of a rigid material or a membrane.

To achieve energy efficient buildings, the requirements for air tightness in Norway were strengthened in the recent years. Thus, the use of tape for tightening connections and overlaps in the wind barrier and vapour barrier layer has become more and more common. Since these products are covered by a façade cladding and hence difficult to access, they need to maintain their performance level over many years, usually 25 to 30 years.

To design test methods to ensure the performance of tapes and other products used in the ventilated air gap, more knowledge on the climatic conditions, especially temperature conditions, is needed.

The recently finished ZEBLab building in Trondheim, Norway, has been instrumented with thermoelements to monitor the temperature conditions in the air gap. Altogether 22 locations around the building were instrumented in the air gap of the vertical façade and on the south oriented inclined roof. Each location contains three measurements, on the surface of the back of the cladding (solar panels or wooden cladding), in the middle of the air gap, and on the surface on top of the wind barrier layer.

This study presents the instrumentation set up and first findings from the start of the experiment in summer 2020. First results show temperature levels up to 80°C in the upper part of the roof construction.



11:21am - 11:24am

Fire safety evaluation of different internal insulation measures in Danish and European context

Nickolaj Feldt Jensen1,2, Martin Morelli1, Lars Schiøtt Sørensen2

1Aalborg University, Department of the Built Environment, Denmark; 2Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, Denmark

In the last 10 years, there has been an increased focus on energy upgrading the existing building stock. This have included several projects dealing with internal insulation. Many of the studies have considered the internal insulation as a measure to achieve a specific energy level of buildings. Later the focus has been on the durability of the ‘new’ structure with additional insulation on the internal side, i.e. if the solution is moisture robust. These measures have been applied in both theoretical studies, laboratory as well as in real buildings. Furthermore, many studies have investigated the internal insulation in combination with wooden beams. However, none of the studies has reported whether or not the suggested retrofit measures fulfil fire requirements. The fire requirements also consider the height of buildings and therefore, measures that are applicable in the lower levels of multi-storey buildings might not be applicable at higher levels.

This study includes a review of a number of different studies where insulation materials was used as internal insulation measures. These measures are evaluated against the Danish fire regulations and furthermore, compared to EU-harmonised fire standards including national adapted requirements for selected countries. The study will evaluate, if the measures are applicable with respect to fire safety in general, and for all floor levels. If the measures do not meet the fire regulations, an upgrade is presented thus the measures is applicable for internal usage.



11:24am - 11:27am

Thermal performance of roof assemblies for developing countries in tropical climate

Petr Čanda, Pavel Kopecký

Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic

Roof structures have been traditionally built from reed or straw in tropical climate countries. Now, these roof coverings are often replaced by pure metal sheets. The roof construction is improved in terms of durability, reliability and cost effectiveness, but pure metal sheets do not control heat transfer and retention well. This may lead to excessive overheating of interior spaces. The thermal performance of a metal sheet roof can be improved by locally available natural building materials. The aim of this work is to compare the dynamic thermal performance of various roof assemblies under real boundary conditions. For this purpose, a thermally insulated test box with a shed roof was built. Six roof samples can be mounted and monitored side-by-side on the supporting wooden fibre board. The roof made of pure steel sheet with Zn coating was the reference case. Then, it was modified stepwise either by a change of colour, additional material layers or a ventilated air cavity. Reed boards acted as thermal insulation. Unburn earth boards were used as a heat storage layer. In total, 18 different roof assemblies were monitored in three consecutive test runs (three-week long periods between 06 - 11-2020). Measurements showed that white paint and a ventilated air cavity are effective construction adjustments for reducing the interior heat flux and surface temperature of the metal sheet. The influence of reed and earth boards was in many cases similar, a difference was achieved due to the different thickness. One roof assembly was selected for a real project in Zambia.



11:27am - 11:30am

Trent Brick Panel: innovative envelope system designed according latest UK national fire and energy performance regulations

Emanuele Calabrò1,2, Fabio Peron2, Forrest Meggers3

1Midgard Design Services Ltd (JRL Group), United Kingdom; 2IUAV University of Venice, Scuola di Dottorato in Architettura, Città e Design, Venice, Italy; 3Princeton University, School of Architecture, Princeton, New Jersey, US

In November 2018, following the Grenfell Tower tragedy, the Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government (MHCLG) introduced an amendment to the Building Regulations 2010, which outlined stricter rules banning the use of combustible materials.

The ban restricts the use of combustible materials in defined buildings with a storey 18m or more above ground level containing a sleeping risk. Known now as ‘relevant buildings’, they are defined by the new Building Regulation 7(4).

The ban was implemented on the 21st of December 2018 for all new projects registered on or after this date together with any existing projects that had not commenced before the 21st of February 2019. Subject to certain exclusions, materials or products used in the ‘external walls’ and any ‘specified attachments’ must now be non-combustible when assessed under the European fire classification system.

This change had a significant impact on the materials and systems that can be used in the construction of any project, and careful planning is required to ensure compliance with the regulations can be achieved before starting works on site.

The Trent Brick Panel represents the evolution of the construction industry and the opportunity of innovation developing envelope prototypes.

The off-site manufacturing of the glass reinforced concrete panel mimicking the traditional brickwork, is the result of an investigation carried out with the market leading actors: developers, main contractors, subcontractors, engineering consultancies, architects, local authorities and warranty providers.

The research aims to finalize and assess the weathering performance according to CWCT Sequence B test, the sequence and buildability study and the method statement for a EN13501-1 and BS8414 fire performance test.



 
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