RN20_10b: Pedagogy and Research Ethics
A Method Proposed for the Analysis of Lesson Observations: The Exploration of Social Representations about the Student-Teacher Relationship.
Institute of Education - UCL, United Kingdom
In this abstract, a method for analysing lesson observations about social representations that both teachers and students can have of their relationship within the classroom is proposed. Although research on the student-teacher relationship has been studied extensively, research on social representations about the relationship is rather scarce. Indeed, the analysis of lesson observations for exploring social representations about the student-teacher relationship is almost non-existent. Considering that social representations are a complex social construct for analysis, it is necessary to reflect on the best way to do it. Even though there are several ways for analysing lesson observations, these methods and techniques have shown to be insufficient for the comprehension of the social representations. As part of my doctoral thesis, I have proposed a method which is based on the mix of three sources: the theory of social representations of Moscovici, the definition of the verbal, non-verbal and para-verbal languages of Van-der Hofstadt, and the technique of Thematic analysis by Braun and Clarke. Eight observations of classes of different teachers belonging to four high schools were analysed with this method. The experience was very positive and provided significant insights into the understanding of social representations about the relationship of both teachers and students in the classroom. The proposed method of analysis turned out to be quite practical and easy to follow. However, it requires some adjustments which are discussed in this document. The limitations and scope of the method are also discussed.
Analysing Pedagogical Practice: Theoretical and Methodological Boundaries
University of Thessaly, Greece
The present paper aims to explore theoretical and methodological boundaries for the analysis of the pedagogical practice. In this paper, the analysis of the pedagogical practice concentrates on three particular aspects a) the curriculum – as the policy driver, b) the teachers’ understating of the curriculum – as the recontextualisation of knowledge and c) the teacher-students interaction within the classroom – as the realisation of the pedagogical practice.
The theoretical combination utilises the work of Foucault, Bernstein and Goffman and the methodological imbrication concentrates on discursive methodology, ethnomethodology and symbolic interaction. Within this work theory and methodology are understood as notions that formulate particular frameworks and in doing so, they also construct theoretical and methodological boundaries and barriers in attempting to use them simultaneously. However, the point of origin for this conceptualisation lies in the possibility of exploring consistently policy, knowledge and interaction as a way of an in-depth exploration of the processes and enactment of the pedagogical practice.
This work is presented as a theoretical piece drawing on results from previous research and aiming to support the methodological framework of forthcoming research. Within this context the paper has a dual focus, firstly on lessons learned regarding theoretical and methodological imbrication in pedagogical practice analysis and secondly, the possibility of overcoming the boundaries and barriers presented by the use of combined theoretical and methodological frameworks.
The Ethics Of Research And Researching Ethics
Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
There are many phenomena that within specific cultural and social context are ‘sensitive’. This is especially true for phenomena that deal with potential fears of stigmatization or reputational damage. As researchers, we are generally well versed in outlining the importance of protecting participants, the way we intend to this and the possible consequences of the research process upon the lives of those being studies.
Experience clearly indicates that these are not the only participants affected by the research. Especially with regard to investigating sensitive issues within organizational settings, the researchers and non-participating employees may also be placed at risk.
The present paper aims at uncovering a gradually developing ‘spiral of fear’, initiated by organizations’ alleged fear of being publicly blamed, resulting in manifold fears felt by almost all organizational actors as well as the researcher(s). The presentation focuses on the associated implications for field access, methodological concerns, data collection, data analysis and explanatory power. Basis for this is a critical reflection on a research project examining whether social identity is a predictor of employees’ destructive authoritarian obedience within public corporations and agencies in Germany.
Despite the successful agreement on the research cooperation, the research project was steadily doomed to failure, among other things because of a strict organizational governance of the research process. For example, interview partners have been directed with regard to their response behavior.
The outline field experience calls for strategies encouraging the collaboration of research and practice.
Empowerment And Social Responsibility In Qualitative Reseach
BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg, Germany
The aim of the paper is to open a discussion on the challenges of digital technology for the progress of qualitative research. The benefits are obvious. Recording and transcription is continuously getting faster, more precise and cheaper. With the help of digital tools the analytical process gains in depth, breadth and complexity. The thesis of the paper is that these developments produce challenges, which need new ethical and methodological reflection. This thesis will be discussed by analyzing problems that occur in qualitative research with refugees in Europe.
The challenges begin with the decision, if a researcher should sound record or even video record interviews or rely on handwritten notes. Because of experiences before and during their flight, many refugees have reasons to refuse recording their voice. Methodological decisions to create a trusting cooperation based on safety and empowerment can conflict with the state of the art. By doing interviews with non-native speakers or interpreters another question is, how differentiated such recorded material can honestly be used.
A further issue is how to publish this material. While reading phonetically transcripted material is part of the academic culture, target groups often state discomfort, when reading quotations that ignore the rules of correct language, punctuation and grammar. This is especially true for refugees, who experience exclusion in times of growing nationalism that often refers to national language. In order not to reproduce or even strengthen social hierarchy, methodological decisions need empowering solutions beyond the current practice.