RN27_03: Migration and Refugee Flows
Spain Italy and Greece: the migratory routes to Europe and the AMIF Fund
University of Catania, Italy
In the last decades, the main entrance to Europe for migration flows has alternatively been through Greece, Spain and Italy. Before the humanitarian crisis starting in 2011, these natural frontiers of southern Europe expressed common characteristics (i.e. economic development and informality) and similar responses (i.e. weak control and regularisations) to migration. The role of EU and the impact on law and policy in these countries, has been considered either limited or primarily oriented towards external border control and, in the last years, it weakly turned to regulate procedures for refugee status.
In 2014 the AMIF fund (Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund Reg. EU.516/2014) was set up in order to “promote an efficient management of migration flows and the implementation (…) of a common EU approach to asylum and immigration” with a total of 3.137 billion for 7 years (2014-2020). Spain, Greece and Italy received the highest percentage of assignation (from 11 to 13%) apart from the UK. The largest share of the total AMIF fund is channelled through shared management and each state implement a National Programme.
How the aims defined in the AMIF have been translated into state policy action? Which kind of National Plans has been implemented in the three countries? Which actors and legal processes are governing the migration flow in these countries? Are there still some indicators of the southern European model? The paper, analysing the AMIF Interim Evaluation Reports of the three countries explores some possible responses to the questions posed.
Protection Of The Rights Of Unaccompanied Refugee Children In Greece Of the Socio - Economic Crisis
Laboratory of Integrated Health Care, Nursing Department, University of Peloponnese, Greece
It has been conducted research in Greek legislation, literature review in the databases PUBMED and Google Scholar and research on the websites of UNHCR, UNICEF, Amnesty International and World Health Organization for the period of 2000 to 2019.
The study deals with the evaluation of the institutional framework for the protection of the rights of unaccompanied refugee children in Greece. In recent years, the waves refugee from the Middle East and Africa in Greece have increased due to wars and turmoil and refugees arrive in Greece in a state of constant hardship and suffering and at the risk of their lives. Refugee rights are being violated in various ways. Among the refugees arriving in Greece, there are many unaccompanied children who are even more vulnerable to difficulties and dangers. The Greek state, in cooperation with other international institutions, takes measures to protect their rights and their rehabilitation and integration. Basic care required for unaccompanied children includes healthcare, education and finding a solution for their permanent settlement. Although the Greek state, in conjunction with other agencies, has taken many steps on this direction, there are still many weaknesses, which should be overcome for human rights and children’s rights are met.
Transnational Strategies of Welfare Provision of Ecuadorian Migrants in Spain
ESOMI, Universidade da Coruña, Spain
Drawing on 44 biographical interviews, carried out in Spain and Ecuador, with migrants and their families the aim of this paper is twofold. First, the article assesses how migrant women in Spain have become a resource for the provision of formal social protection hired as care workers in the domestic service regime. This process must be addressed within the framework of Spain’s long-term social care policy and its impact on the creation of an irregular, gendered and ethnicised labour niche. Secondly, the paper identifies those informal social protection strategies developed by Ecuadorian migrant women and their families in the transnational space. Given that access to social rights and benefits in Spain are linked to employment and depend on job stability, Ecuadorian migrant women employed as care workers have more difficulties to gain access to formal social protection than other migrant workers. We argue that these transnational exchanges become the only resistance strategies to cushion social risk and imply the deployment of gendered informal strategies.
The concept ‘transnational social inequalities’ (Lutz 2018; Amelina 2017) is the core theoretical approach to link these aforementioned aims. This term links the disadvantaged position of migrant care workers in both the labour market and in the social structure of the country of destination. This inequality takes place at a transnational level but has a localized impact reflected on the marginalization of care workers in relation to the public schemes of social protection as well as to the emergence of transnational practices of support within the family.
Networking Mobility: An Analysis Of The Interrelation Between Transnational Migration And Social Capital
1UNIVERSITAT DE BARCELONA, Spain; 2UNIVERSIDADE DA CORUÑA, Spain
This paper aims to analyse the role played by the assets derived from the participation of the migrant population of Latin American origin in transnational social networks when defining their social mobility strategies. For that purpose, this research deals with the study of social capital in which these migrants invest as a means of ascending the social hierarchy. A further objective is to study the effect the composition and nature of these networks have on the social position of different generations.
To this end, a proposal of analysis of social capital is presented through different indicators expected to identify which type of investments in social networks result in more successful social mobility strategies for migrant households in the different social spaces in which they develop and apply their strategies (social space of origin, social space of destination and transnational social space). These indicators are based on the combination of classical analysis measurement of social capital (Granovetter, 1973; Bourdieu, 1986; Portes, 1998; Lin, 2002) with variables applied to the study of transnational social mobility, such as gender, generation, social class, etc. (Oso and Suárez-Grimalt, 2017).
The methodology strategy is based on a qualitative study (biographical narrative), multi-situated ethnography and a longitudinal fieldwork with latin-american population. The main results show the unequal effect that the different social networks, in which parents and children invest, perform in the configuration of their social mobility paths. Thus, it is important to highlight the importance of family networks of a transnational nature in the case of the first group, and the importance of informal social capital in terms of second family generations.