RN37_07a: (Un)making urban development
Development Plans In French Rural Municipalities: Social Interactions Between Private Developers And Planning Authorities
1AgroParisTech, INRA-SADAPT, France; 2INRA-SADAPT, France; 3ENSAN, AAU-CRENAU, France
Researches in urban sociology have explored the relations between private and public actors within the planning process but have showed limited academic attention to small size cities. The focus has widened in recent years to include the notion of rural planning (Frank & Reiss, 2014), identifying rural areas specificities: sparsely populated municipalities, strong influence of farmers, weakness of the available expertise, visibility of agricultural and natural surfaces, limited strategies to cope with dispersed urbanization and proximity between local stakeholders (elected officials, landowners, inhabitants and developers).
This contribution proposes to investigate planning practices in peripheral municipalities. The field study presented is the rural fringe of the Nantes metropolitan area, a conurbation of the French Atlantic coast marked by a high demographic growth and an important urban sprawl in the last twenty years.
We explore the interactions between elected authorities and private developers that lead to local trade-offs on the urban planning process.
The study concerns small municipalities considered as rural in regard of the definition of functional urban areas based on commuting data. We develop a quantitative analysis of planning permissions and building permits in 80 municipalities, and qualitative case-studies based on interviews with a panel of developers and local elected officials involved in urbanisation projects.
The Social Side of Anti-Sprawl Strategies: a Comparative Analysis of Minneapolis, Denver, and Portland
Università di Bologna - Alma Mater Studiorum, Italy
What are the conditions that make a city more sustainable? Which ones are probably unique? Which ones could be possible in other cities too? My proposal moves from these reasearch questions with a specific attention to land use management. Very often, indeed, excellent anti-sprawl practices have also some negative effects, and they generate new problems and new forms of inequality.
I will focus on three “mature” US urban areas, where the awareness of this problem has gradually increased in the last decades. I will consider cases with a relatively similar size and located in three different parts of this country: Denver (Colorado), Minneapolis (Minnesota), and Portland (Oregon).
Four points will address my proposal:
1. The major accomplishments of these cities in land use policies.
2. Some conditions that led to these accomplishments.
3. The potential social costs associated with compact urban growth.
4. Which lessons other cities might draw from these cases.
In particular, I will focus on the social equity effects of anti-sprawl strategies in terms of the rise of housing prices as well as the difficulty in managing the process in order to include all the potential stakeholders. I will also point out the local governments of these cities are acting to mitigate these negative effects.
My study is based on the analysis of some statistical data, a historical and political reconstruction of the land use management process, direct observation, and interviews with local experts and key-informants.
From Social Services to Urban Planning: Accessibility for People with Disabilities – The Case of Municipal Professionalization
Ben-Gurion University, Israel
Israel's Equal Rights for People with Disabilities Act, and specifically its Accessibility Chapter, promotes a shift in the discourse on disability, from charity to human rights. Using the Municipality of Tel Aviv-Jaffa as a case study, this research examines how disability legislation is implemented in practice.
Combining qualitative methodology and Critical Disability theory, this paper compares the municipality's actions before and after approval of the Accessibility Chapter. It examines how principles stemming from the social model of disability, formally integrated into the law itself, have been translated into municipal planning practices.
The findings show that the municipality has undergone significant processes of professionalization and institutionalization. This facilitated comprehensive implementation of the Accessibility Chapter and its underpinning principle of inclusion. But these processes have also led to a shift of authority, from welfare professionals to accessibility advisors and urban planners; this has prevented citizens with disabilities from participating in decision-making processes on policies that affect their lives in the city.
This paper presents a critical organizational analysis of the field of accessibility for people with disabilities in an urban context. I argue that the professionalization of the field of accessibility affects the participation of people with disabilities, due to the institutionalization of professional practices, and the inherently technical and operational nature of the urban planning professions. Disability Studies scholars have proposed strategies to ensure the participation of people with disabilities alongside the drive to professionalization, notably in the field of medicine. I suggest that these strategies should similarly be adopted in the field of urban planning.
Planning For Sustainable Cities By Crossing Boundaries – Exploring How Conflicts Of Interest Are Managed By Integrating Different Types Of Knowledge In Urban Planning.
University of Gothenburg, Sweden
Implementing Sustainable Development Goals in urban planning has been suggested as a key strategy to transform society to become more sustainable. When implementing the SDGs, one of the main challenges and possibilities for urban governance is the ability to manage conflicting interests. Conflict management is therefore decisive for sustainable urban development. Knowledge integration has been identified as a key element to support conflict resolution. However, the processes of knowledge integration have so far received limited attention. This paper aims to deepen understanding of what happens when different actors are involved in the knowledge production for planning future sustainable urban districts. The paper seeks to answer the following research question: What does different actors’ perspectives on knowledge and knowledge use mean for conflict resolution practices in urban planning?
The research is conducted through a case study of how conflicts of interests are managed when planning for sustainable districts in the urban development project RiverCity Gothenburg, Sweden. Within this project, I follow an informal collaborative knowledge production process. Informed by theory on co-production of knowledge and boundary work, I apply an interdisciplinary knowledge typology to map out different types of knowledge used to reach agreement within the project, and their relations to different actors. This paper contributes to a more systematic and in-depth understanding of the role of knowledge use in conflict resolution practices and processes within urban governing.