Qualitative Perspectives: Visual Methods (Family map and Life line) in Children of Divorce Research
Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Italy
Many changes are affecting the family today, transforming the foundations of self-identity, which are the core models for everyday personal life. The situation of family disruption, such as separation and divorce, raises either a number of human and social issues, and transitions which deserve to be better understood. Results from a PhD research thesis carried out on a sample of young Italian adults, showed in the form of qualitative data the main features of two visual methods, the Family map and Life line. They defined the structure, the positions of family members, the relationships between them and conceptualized who belongs to a family that has changed, with crucial events related. The interviewee could actively identify and describe graphically (within the four sections and the concentric circles of the map and along the line) which relations and facts were or are more or less relevant. The interviewer could ask questions in order to get some processes of change and the actors’ own perception of such change, e.g. with reference to current state or past events. Along a specific visual development of the graphs -while providing a helpful framework- this throws some light on what family relationships, events and representations were/are on the perception of the person involved. The challenge posed for this visual methods is to continue to conceive of individuals in terms of relational approach, through the interdependence with self, others, and the world during the course of life. A great contribution of this tool sui generis is that it opened and opens the door to numerous additional questions that need answers and further research.
Keywords: children of divorce, visual methods, qualitative research, network maps, relational approach
Visual Diaries of the Border. Methodological Challenges of Researching Everyday Practices with Smartphone Application.
1Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland; 2Leibniz-Institut für Raumbezogene Sozialforschung
In our presentation we will refer to project „De-Re-Bord. Socio-spatial transformations in German-Polish interstices. Practices of debordering and rebordering”, implemented in the framework of the Polish-German NCN-DFG Beethoven 2 program. Its aim is to research Polish-German border and to reconstruct spatial discourses and the knowledge systems they imply, as well as actual practices of residents. Particular attention is paid to material and visual manifestations of the border.
We implement in the project multidimensional qualitative research design. Document analysis and expert interviews are used for the reconstruction of discourses. Within participatory observations researchers use photographic shooting scripts. Participants are asked to create spatial-temporal visual diaries. In order to reconstruct the materiality of borders, we use the walking-with-video technique.
Following the illustration of the methodological challenges, we will focus primarily on the presentation of an smartphone’s application, designed specifically for the needs of the project. The application allows to record the daily activities of research participants, as well as patterns of their daily mobility. It also enables participants to produce visual diaries showing the daily experiences of the border and the debordering and rebordering processes present there. In our presentation we would like to point out such aspects of the application's functioning:
• The way of designing the application and its basic functions
• Problems encountered by participants while using the application and ways to avoid them
• Ways of collecting, storing and distributing materials from the application, taking into account legal and ethical conditions
• Possible ways of analysing data collected by the application
• Possible ways to use the data collected by the application in subsequent stages of research
The Use Of 360°-Videos In Qualitative Social Research
Technische Universität Ilmenau, Germany
The advantages of video recordings for observation are manifold. But despite the advantages of videography, the use of video for observation is repeatedly critically questioned. A frequently discussed problem the related question of whether or to what extent the position and direction of the camera influences the analysis and evaluation of the recorded situation (eg Reichertz, 2014; Bohnsack, 2010; Frankenhauser, 2013; Knoblauch & Schnettler, 2015; Jewitt, 2012; DuFon, 2002, Luff and Heath, 2013). Because framing only reveals what happens in front of the camera, it is also determined what is outside. Framing separates the visible from the non-visible (Godman, 2007). For video-based observation, this circumstance appears to be highly problematic. In practice, the camera holding person has a great influence on the analysis and a massive impact on the results. With an almost clairvoyant ability the videographer has to determine situationally, what should be in the focus of the camera and what not. However, what has been ignored in this discussion so far is the use of 360° video recordings. At first glance, it seems like this technique could be a great advance for scientific observations. Framing is lifted, a "before and behind the camera" doesn’t seem to exist anymore. Multi-perspectives become superfluous and the person holding the camera no longer needs clairvoyant abilities. However, this technology also raises many new questions. In the present paper we would like to discuss the impact of 360° video recordings on existing “techniques and rules" of scientific videography. It will be questioned whether current findings on this subject should be rethought or at least revised.
Capturing the Interrupted Boundaries of Public and Private Experience at UK Pedestrian Crossings
University of Manchester, United Kingdom
This paper details the development and employment of a method designed to capture participants' experiences of pedestrian crossing use in their routine walking journeys through Manchester. The paper describes how pedestrian crossing practice in the UK can be said to be characterised by a ‘normalised incoherence’, with a tendency to favour individual judgement, over adherence to what the signals advise, leading to frequent occurrences of awkwardness, confusion, poor-judgement and hazard. It was posited that this might, in part, relate to the crossings representing interruptions of ‘publicness’ in routine experiences of pedestrianism that have been increasingly framed by privatised and individualised notions of mobility. The paper details how this hypothesis was investigated through a two-part ethnographic process. Initially, a period of participant-observation was undertaken, with a route through Manchester featuring significant interruption by pedestrian crossings being repeatedly walked, with audio field-notes recorded in situ. This was complemented by a visual method, ‘Dual Perspective Go-Pro Ethnography’, which involved participants recording their pedestrian journeys using a head-mounted camera, whilst the researcher followed them, also wearing a camera, to capture a contextualising view of the trip. The captured footage was edited such that both recorded perspectives could be viewed simultaneously and used as means of elicitation in discussions about the journey between the researcher and participants. The paper goes on to discuss the effectiveness of this method as a means of obtaining reflections on and insights into mobile social experience that might otherwise escape a participant’s or researcher’s attention, and describes how it facilitates the ability to discuss these journeys as shared experiences, despite participants (mostly) behaving as they would if walking alone.