Trust Relationships in Employment Relationships
Durham University, United Kingdom
Trust between employers and employees and their representatives, i.e. in the employment relationship, is usually seen in literature as beneficial for the efficacy of their interaction. The beneficial role of trust between the employee and employer side on the efficacy of their interaction is rooted in the beneficial role of trust in negotiation and bargaining situations in general. Although literature contains a reasonable amount of theoretical and empirical research on the reasons why trust can be high or low (or somewhere in-between) in different countries and companies relatively few stylized and generalizable facts have emerged because the majority of analyses focused on case (e.g. single company or country) studies. Furthermore, previous literature concentrated on trust from the employee side in the employer side, i.e. on trust in management, but very little research can be found on trust in the other direction, i.e. on trust of the employer side in the employee side. Even more scarce is research in mutual trust. On basis of a unique, large and comprehensive matched employee/employer data set which covers trust relationships at establishment level between the employer side, i.e. the management, and the employee side, i.e. employee representatives, this article not only gives an overview of how trust between the two side differs in different companies in different European countries, but also provides a systematic analysis of the factors which determine trust in the employment relationship.
Matching Job Preferences with Job Qualities for Job Satisfaction: How Institutions matter for Matching Across 24 Countries
1Stockholm University, Sweden; 2Gothenburg University
Sustainable working lives in modern economies warrant a good match in the labour market, not only on education and skill, but also in relation to valued working conditions. Matching on job quality, its effect on employees well-being at work, and how labour market institutions may account for country-differences in such matching, however remains uncharted grounds in comparative research. Firstly, this study aims to describe employees’ work values, job qualities and their matching in 24 OECD countries. It proposes a novel approach to job quality, simultaneously addressing eight central extrinsic and intrinsic dimensions. Secondly, it assesses the effects of matching for job satisfaction. Thirdly, it examines how institutions relating to the labour market explain cross-country differences in (mis)match. For multi-level analyses, survey data from the ISSP Work Orientation module of 2015 were combined with contextual data reflecting institutional dimensions expected to influence both availability of quality jobs and the matching process. Results show how vast majorities value multiple dimensions of work, but how job qualities are scarcer, especially in Eastern Europe. Furthermore, matching on job qualities – especially intrinsic qualities – was found independently conducive to job satisfaction, i.e. in addition to effects of numerous job qualities. Lastly, matching was found more accurate in countries with higher degree of worker organisation and corporatist structures – especially for intrinsic matching, and also, but with a weaker association, in countries with a lifelong learning profile, more extensive active labour market training programs and more generous unemployment protection – institutions that allegedly contribute to both availability of quality jobs and the matching process itself.
Relevance of Cooperative Work Environments for Social Creations
1Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Spain; 2Universitat Rovira i Virgili
Several studies focus on creativity and innovation in the context of organizations, paying special attention to different work environments. Throughout this communication, authors present the relevance of the dialogic leadership in a specific work environment such as cooperatives, a type of leadership that creates social alternatives and achieves social impact. E. O. Wright described this process as ‘Real Utopias’ (2010). This research is analyzing the role of leadership in the organizational context of Catalan housing cooperatives. For this purpose, authors present the results of a case study including one housing cooperative in Barcelona (Spain). On the one hand, this study looked at the implications that dialogic leadership should have regarding the participation and democratization of the institution. On the other hand, the study focused on the social impact and the social innovation generated by the cooperative. The analysis and discussion, from a communicative perspective, gives us the opportunity to put the emphasis of research on the transformative aspects, and moreover, to highlight those elements that can be transferred to other work environments. To sum up, this study presents dialogic leadership capable of overcoming housing challenges and providing innovative responses that promote community engagement and access rights to housing. At the same time, this way of organization is capable to engage with the housing challenges and overcome it with innovative solutions.
The Effects of Organizational Commitment on Emotional Labor of Restaurant Workers
Faculty of Philosophy Novi Sad
Organizational commitment refers to the positive attitudes that an employee feels about the organization as a whole or to some of its members. Most often, a worker who is dedicated to the organization expresses a stronger degree of emotions than one who feels a high level of job satisfaction. Because of the role that emotions play in dedication, it seems interesting to consider the relationship between organizational commitment and emotional labor as a process by which workers are expected to manage their emotions in accordance with the organizational rules and goals. Therefore, this research starts with the question how the types of organizational commitment (high/low commitment to the workgroup/manager) affect the different levels of emotional labor (surface acting, deep acting, and suppression)?
Emotional labor is most common in the service sector, and has become somewhat of a standard for employers to seek emotional management skills from their employees. Therefore, this paper focuses on the emotional labor of restaurant workers who are in direct contact with clients. A quantitative research approach has been applied, and the data has been collected by structured questionnaire. Given numerous, already existing studies on relations between job satisfaction and emotional labor, this research aims to take a step forward and to determine the effects of deep commitment to the organization or some of its members in the exploitation of personal feelings for business purposes.