Understanding Care: Vulnerabilities, Support e Interdependencies
1University of Almería, Spain; 2University Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla, Spain; 3University Complutense of Madrid, Spain
This paper presents the results of the project “New forms of social and existential vulnerability, support and care in Spain”, funded by the Spanish R&D&I National Plan CSO2016-76179-R of the Ministry of Science and Innovation. The project is based on the qualitative research conducted in Spain by means of three discussion groups composed of particularly vulnerable social groups: family caregivers, young individuals in a situation of precariousness and long-term unemployed individuals over 45 years. This paper focuses on the analysis of discourse of family caregivers and delves into the relationship existing between the experience of care and that of vulnerability and interdependency. In a broad sense, care, as defined by Joan Tronto and Berenice Fisher (1990:40), allows explaining the complexity of the discourses regarding the experiences of care, as well as enabling a better understanding of the different dimensions which shape care: emotional, moral and physical (corporal, material and temporal) (Martín Palomo, 2008; Martín Palomo and Krabel, 2016). The processes of interaction between those who give support and those who receive it are pierced by affection, bodies, suffering, satisfaction, physical effort and, ultimately, a diverse range of dispositions, many times in conflict with each other –especially concerning the tension between self-care and the care of others. This work intends to analyse how the body and emotions operate in the processes of interaction between caregivers and care-receivers in order to elaborate further on the subjective and material dimensions which promote vulnerability within care and on the impact this processes have on caregivers.
The Habituality of (Un)healthy Lifestyles: Milieu-Specific Socialization and the Stratified Obesity Pattern
Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands, The
Cultural aspects of stratification may be very relevant for understanding the higher prevalence of obesity among the lower strata (e.g. Pampel et al., 2010). More specifically, two types of stratified behaviour could account for the stratified obesity pattern: food intake (e.g. Sato et al., 2016) and physical exercise (e.g. Engström, 2008). However, as advanced by Bourdieusian stratification analyses, stratified food and physical exercise preferences and practices are considered to be performed habitually, as they result from life-long, stratum-specific socialisation. The empirical sociological scrutiny of such habitual practices is, however, in its infancy. In the paper, we use Implicit Association Tests (IAT) in combination with surveys (n=1000, UK) to: 1) identify empirically the existence of different habitus among different social strata; and 2) determine their role in the stratified patterns pertaining to obesity.
In a first step, we uncover whether a negative (positive) implicit association with healthy (unhealthy) foods can be especially found among the lower strata, as expected based on Bourdieusian theorising. Second, by associating the IAT scores with survey data on a respondent’s current and childhood social conditions, we assess whether such a stratified pattern in implicit associations is based on stratum-specific socialisation or other cultural or material influences. Subsequently, in a third step, we consider whether those stratified IAT scores account for the population-wide stratified patterns in food intake, and in obesity, that have already been extensively reported by means of survey research – in other words: whether the habitus does indeed underlie those stratified patterns, as widely assumed.
Perceptions Of Tobacco And Alcohol Consumption In Urban Areas of Madrid. Qualitative Research In Three Neighbourhoods In Madrid With Different Socioeconomic Statuses.
1Department of Sociology and Communication. Faculty of Social Science. University of Salamanca, Spain; 2Faculty of Medicine. University of Alcalá, Madrid, Spain.
Within the public health field, consumption of tobacco and alcohol are two of the main risk factors of different diseases in adult population. The aim of this research is to demonstrate that the neighbourhoods’ socioeconomic status, as well as the social and physical environment, have influenced perceptions about the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. As a secondary objective, we have inquired into the effect that the economic crisis has had on perceptions of alcohol and tobacco consumption. Also we have looked into the influence that immigrant population has had on perceptions about alcohol consumption. This research is part of a project named “Urban environment and health: Qualitative approach in the Heart Healthy Hoods Study.” In the research project, three neighbourhoods from Madrid with different socioeconomic statuses were selected: San Diego (low socioeconomic status), El Pilar (medium socioeconomic status) and Nueva España (high socioeconomic status). A qualitative analysis has been conducted about the perceptions that local people from each neighbourhood have with regards to the alcohol and tobacco consumption. Data was obtained from 36 semi structured interviews (12 from San Diego, 11 from El Pilar and 13 from Nueva España) and 29 focus groups (14 from San Diego, 11 from El Pilar and four from Nueva España. As preliminary findings we have uncovered: 1) Perceptions about normalisation of alcohol consumption; 2) The increase of alcohol consumption in public places such as parks; and 3) Different perceptions about tobacco consumption, for instance in the high socioeconomic status neighbourhood there is a strong stigmatisation of tobacco consumption, while in the low socioeconomic status neighbourhood there is a normalisation of the consumption of marijuana mixed with tobacco.
Obesity and Inequality in Europe: A Multi-Level Analysis of 20 European Countries
1VIVE - The Danish Center for Social Science Research, Denmark; 2University of Copenhagen
The association between obesity and social inequality is well known. Yet, little is known about how other factors might affect the association. Analysing representative data from 20 countries from the European Social Survey, this paper contributes to the literature by showing how the association between body weight and inequality is mediated by individual and structural factors. Our multi-level analysis reveal significant cross-country differences in the association between inequality and body weight. These findings are mainly driven by institutional differences in the welfare states. The main conclusion is body size is not only an individual problem but also a matter of public spending on health.