The Vicious Circle of Organized Violence and Forced Migration
Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany
The vicious circle of organized violence and forced migration
Especially since the refugee movement of 2015 forced migration is of increasing importance in science and for societies at national, European and global level. Meanwhile the nexus between migration and development has been studied extensively since the 1990s, the relation between organized violence and migration dynamics is less examined. Sometimes organized violence is the fueling factor for mixed migration processes in general (e.g., civil wars in Central America and the Middle East or organized criminal violence), sometimes organized violence is the result of (mixed) migration. A central question is: Under which conditions organized violence and forced migration become a mutually reinforcing vicious circle? The paper will address this question based on empirical evidence from the two macro-regions of Central and North America and of Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. Therein, state violence and non-state organized violence will be compared, and factors slowing down the vicious circle will be identified.
Caporalato. An authentic agromafia
1Tempi Moderni - net, Italy; 2DISTUM, Department of Humanistic Studies, University of Foggia
Focused on the analysis of caporalto, this paper augues about the enslavement of immigrant agricultural labourers and territorial segregation practices. Moreover it deals with the topic of the agromafias’ role and discuss some matters related to the deregulation of the agricultural market as well as the general crisis of the agroindustries.
Because caporalato has become a methodological instrument in the frame called globalization of the farmlands, the authors tries to evaluete the complex relationship between the agromafias’ power and the operational conditions of Italy’s local economies. So they explore elements of the extremely pervasive criminal network that determines productive trends of entire agricultural departments with the intention to denounce the dangerous socio-cultural drifting that mafia-like criminal organizations are creating in Europe
Economic Need, Religion, and Liberal Values. The Diversity of Mechanisms that shape Migration Aspirations among Syrian Refugees in Jordan.
The increase in refugee arrivals in Europe in 2015 (the “refugee crisis”) was in part an outcome of a sudden upsurge of secondary mobility in refugee populations from safe first countries of refuge like Iran, Turkey, Lebanon and Russia. This raise in secondary mobility created a demand for knowledge about migration decisions in refugee populations, and there is now an increasing body of literature developing to describe the mechanisms that shape such migration decisions. In this paper, we analyze migration aspiration among Syrian refugees who live in and outside camps in Jordan. We discuss the role of ideology, religion and personal resources for how refugees reflect on moving to Europe, and illustrate how the mechanism that shape migration aspiration differ depending on the economic situation of the household. The analysis is based on survey-data from a representative sample of 7632 Syrian households in Jordan, produced late fall and winter 2017/18.
Chain Migration, an Endless Project of Crossing Boundaries: North Korean Defector Family Cases in South Korea
Seoul National University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
This study examines family migration of North Korean defectors to South Korea from the perspective of the sociology of migration. The contexts of such escapes have been dynamic due to the long stays in transit countries, the institutionalization of defection routes, utilization of networks, and an increase in female migrants. I conducted interviews with 10 North Korean defectors to figure out the details of migration decision-making, the migration process, and aspects of settlement and assimilation in South Korea. Family migration can be classified into two types: family member accompaniment and family invitation with a time difference. The immigration network formed between immigrants and family members remaining in North Korea has a great influence on chain migration and settle in South Korea. Through a family network, it is possible to obtain detailed information on South Korean society and the actual method to escape North Korea, such as meeting brokers and paying fees. After settling, North Korean migrants preserve their bonds by regularly sending money to their families. Chain migration does not end until all of the family members are living together; it is an ongoing project. Generally, the formation of a transnational family network reduces the costs and risks of migration and increases the likelihood of chain migration. However, what makes the North Korean case unique is that chain migration has potentially dire consequences because the risks for remaining family members in North Korea steadily increase from the moment one escapes. Their chain migration has the universality of international migration and the dual characteristic of operating as a mechanism that intensifies the structural closeness of migration.