"I Get Along Better with Whites than with Blacks." Discursive Imprisonment and Ways out for Third Generation of „Others“ in European Space. Czech-Slovak Roma Mothers Narrating their Way to Upbring the Early School Children
Masaryk University, Czech Republic
The paper develops the coping strategies of contemporary parent generation (namely mothers) of third generation of Slovak Roma who came after 1945 to Czech lands. It is based on the analysis of 25 biographic interviews that has been realized within the H2020 ISOTIS project, and collaborative analysis that confronted the Czech case with research fields in Greece and Portugal. The international perspective on the nature of contemporary European Roma mothers’ narratives revealed the importance of wider context of everyday life, namely cultural and political climate in the affected countries.
The contemporary Czech Roma mothers present in their narratives of upbringing early school children the symptomatic melange of assimilative approach and stereotyping labelling discourse. They are using their habitual gear to influence the identity shaping of the upcoming generation. Many of the mothers we spoke with are bilingual, they speak Czech and Roma, sometimes other languages. Thus, the early socialization in their own families concerns choice of mother tongue for their children, which presents strong input into the process of cultural identity shaping. The variety of coping strategies with othering processes (in the Czech context essentially driven by the recognition of darker pigmentation as undesirable) serves as inspiration for considering today´s newcomers into European space upcoming generation upbringing choices when coping with othering. Identity processes are always situational and interactional and thus we need to elaborate on structural conditions contemporary newcomers entered while they immigrated, together with the micro analysis of their strategies and tactics they employ in everyday life.
Boundaries Un/Making By Young Refugees In Urban Spaces
Bielefeld University, Germany
The European societies are confronted-especially since summer 2015- with the consequences of civil wars in Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan refugees. Meanwhile, the rise of right-wing populism and an increasing anti-rhetoric migration discourse has created a ‘moral panic’ concerning immigration in Europe. Frequently, the discourse portrays refugees as an existential threat to traditional European values and individual countries national security (Lazaridis, 2016). This narrative has spurned on feelings of resentment, prejudice and discrimination, all of which contribute to sense of unequal worth among refugees (Fozdar & Torezani, 2008). The refugees who experienced the episodes of violence and a long coercive journey, this exclusion and hostility results into the cliffhanger where immigrants encounter uncertainty and discrimination in the arriving society. In this context, the study aims to explore the experiences and practices of belonging when they are confronted with boundaries and stigmatization. Zooming into micro experiences of young refugees to answer the research question: how are the social boundaries contested and re-negotiated by young refugees in localized and transnational spaces? With two supporting sub-questions: a). How the cultural repertoires and biographies of these young refugees intervene with the re-figuration of such boundaries? b). How discrimination and discourse have impact on these boundaries making and unmaking process? In order to answer these questions, the study will take multi-sited ethnographic approach to uncover the lived-experiences and imaginaries of young refugees by participation observation and interview with them. The protagonists of study are young refugees aged 18-26 years-old. Analysis of study will be built up on symbolic boundary making underpinnings, getting respect (Lamont et al.,2016) that will help us to understand the social integration of young refugees.
To Become or Not to Become a Parent? How Childless/Childfree Men Experience Their Life Trajectories
Institute of Sociology, Czech Republic
An increasing number of adults today have never experienced parenthood for a variety of reasons. While in Western societies being ‘childfree’ became a non-stigmatised lifestyle option and particular attention has been paid to this is phenomenon, in Central-Eastern Europe there have been only a limited number of empirical studies focusing speciﬁcally on childlessness (mainly quantitative surveys or qualitative studies focusing mainly on childless women). Special attention has not been paid at all or insufficiently to childless/childfree men. However, it can be expected that, at least partly, different reasons contribute to the development and increase of childless not only women, but also men in Central-Eastern Europe from those in the West.
In the qualitative study, 14 in-depth interviews were conducted with men from the Czech Republic (between the ages of 40 to 60, with different level of education, from cities as well as small localities) who remained childless/childfree as a result of certain constraints and choices. This study reveals how these men experience their life (and especially reproductive) trajectories and what meanings they attach to them, what mechanisms underpin the changes/stability of their experience, identities and attitudes to childlessness/parenthood in a new societal situation (i.e. after 1989). Special attention is paid to non-normativity of fatherhood/fathering (compared to motherhood/mattering) as well as new life´s opportunities for self-realization after 1989.
The Racialised - not being Polish, not being White, not being European
University of Leeds, United Kingdom
Racialisation is an essential area of race through which, for centuries, the ways of life of the people of the Middle East and Africa are gazed through Eurocentrism. Using different ways of representation, Europeans often represent the Other as the European fantasy of exoticness, strange and foreign. It is a kind of representation that has been advanced in the discourses on race and nation-state. Studies on migration in Poland often focus on in-out migration in the country. What is largely ignored is the complexities of racialisation in the configuration and negotiation of racial identity in the country. Perhaps, the consensus that Poland is strictly homogeneous state beclouds the possibility that identity is never fixed in time or place. Studying the everyday lives of sub-Saharan African immigrants in Poland provides an opportunity to explore racialisation processes during a time when European boundaries are undergoing migration transformation massively influenced by the 2015-2016 EU migrant crisis. It is within such crisis that I examine the racial contours that are often neglected in migration discourses in Poland. In doing so, I draw on the long tradition of representation of Africa as the racialisation of people of colour in Poland. I argue that such representation puts immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa and their children, either born or brought up in Poland, in a condition where their link to Polishness, if not disconnected, is fragmented through the processes of racialisation. Hence, I situate the European migration crisis within the representation of those racialised as White, Black or Brown.