New Polish Organizations in France: Change or Continuity?
Institute for Western Affairs, Poland
The migration of Polish citizens to France after 2004 contributed to the creation of new Polish immigrant organizations and the evolution of some of the old ones. Currently, there are approximately 200 cultural, educational, social etc. NGOs run by Poles or Frenchmen of Polish origin living in France. The history of the Polish diaspora in this country dates back to the 1830s and was shaped by several migration waves (so-called “Great Emigration” in the 19th century, mass workers’ emigration in the 1920s and 1930s, war and anti-communist emigration until 1989, emigration in the 1990s). The aim of the paper is to explain the specificity of associations created by immigrants who came to France in a new political context (Poland’s accession to the EU) and new economic and technological conditions. In particular, the paper will answer the following questions: What immigrant organisations are attractive for the newcomers? How the new organizations are different from those continuing the traditions of previous migration waves? What is the attitude of the leaders of the new associations towards the existing older organizational structures? Which institutions and NGOs in France cooperate with them? The paper will present the results of qualitative and quantitative research carried out among Polish immigrant organizations in France in 2016-2018, which included analysis of existing data, institutional survey, case studies and forty-eight individual in-depth interviews with representatives of various types of associations from different regions of France.
Marriage and Social Integration – Results From a Longitudinal Survey Among Immigrants in Germany
Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony, Germany
Research on the social integration of immigrants mostly deals with the contributing factors of individual characteristics, such as age, education, and social mobility. The effects of family structure, especially marriage, are rarely integrated into these analyses. This presentation addresses this gap. The present study analyses the social integration of immigrants who came to Lower Saxony in 2015. Acculturation was measured using language skills, employment, attitudes and inter-group relations in the host country. A special emphasis is placed on the possible relationship between marriage and social integration. In particular, the presentation examines whether any differences exist between married immigrants and immigrants without an intimate partner concerning social integration. Furthermore, this paper differentiates between marriage in which both spouses live in Germany and marriages in which one spouse still lives abroad. The degree of social integration was measured at several time points, at the time of immigration, six months later and 14 months later. Results show that immigrants’ language proficiency improved over time. Additionally, inter-group relations in the host country increased between the first and third survey along with the number of immigrants in employment. Furthermore, results indicate that unmarried immigrant scored marginally higher on acculturation than married immigrants.
Socialization And Competition: Mechanisms Of Changes In Attitudes Towards Immigrants In Germany And The UK From 2002 To 2016.
1German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Germany; 2Berlin Graduate School for Social Sciences (BGSS) at Humboldt University (HU) Berlin, Germany
The overall opinion climate towards immigrants in Germany and the United Kingdom (UK) has varied considerably between 2002 and 2016. In a comparative approach, I aim at answering the research question: Which structural and cultural aspects of social change are responsible for changing attitudes towards immigrants in Germany and the UK?
Theory suggests that on one hand social change is triggered by differing societal conditions, social practices or shifting value priorities. Research shows, that the continuous process of ‘cohort replacement’ (Mannheim, 1928) can lead to a long-term change in attitudes and values within society. On the other hand, group conflict approaches explain changes in attitudes towards immigrants with changes in economic conditions and immigration rates, both considered to trigger feelings of competition about scarce resources.
Data from the European Social Survey (ESS) and country-level data for Germany and the UK from 2002 to 2016 allow depicting the theoretical assumptions. Even though the ESS is based on cross-sectional data, the advantages of panel econometric analysis are exploited in the present study. For this, Deaton's (1985) method of pseudo-panel analysis is applied. This methodological approach enables the observation of the factors responsible for a change in attitudes on the level of birth-cohorts, gender and country of origin. The main contribution of this paper therefore lies in identifying the effects in a longitudinal comparative approach. Thereby, the method is superior to OLS regressions and multi-level analysis which are mostly applied when analysing cross-sectional data. Results reveal that the opinion climate towards immigrants is not driven by immigration rates but rather by changes in value priorities and economic developments in the respective country.
Understanding Migrants’ Responses To Unsettling Events: Interrogating ‘Brexodus’ Through A Time-Place-Relational Lens
1Univ of Sheffield, United Kingdom; 2Univ of Sheffield, United Kingdom
The ‘mobility turn’ foregrounds the ongoing movement of people through space. In the particular context of EU Freedom of Movement, this has been taken by some scholars to imply that migrants will respond to changing circumstances by simply moving on. Such a perspective is reflected in popular and academic commentary predicting a mass exodus of EU citizens from the UK in the unfolding context of Brexit – a so-called ‘Brexodus’. Yet, these predictions seem somewhat exaggerated when examined against responses to date. In seeking to account for this, we argue that the ‘mobility turn’ has overlooked the importance of time, place and relationality in understanding migrants’ lived experiences. Taking the case of Polish migration to the UK, we draw on cross-sectional data and data collected longitudinally over time, and in the context of three points of significant change, which we term ‘unsettling events’ – EU Accession in 2004, the 2008-09 economic recession and Brexit. Analysing our data through a life course lens, our findings provide insights into the complexity of migrants’ reactions to these unsettling events, highlighting how mobility and immobility are interconnected in migrants’ lives. We argue for the need for more nuanced understandings of migrant experiences as lived in particular times (both personal and historical), places and relationships.