Multiple Discrimination: From Perceptions and Experiences to the Proposal of Anti-discrimination Policies
Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain
As multiple forms of intolerance (sexism, racism, ageism, classism, xenophobia, homophobia or sexual prejudice) are interrelated, this paper extends previous research on multiple discrimination, its conceptualization, perceptions, experiences and proposals of anti-discrimination policies. It offers main results of the MEDIM II Project, supported by a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Finance and Competition (CSO2016-75946-R). A project aimed at developing a conceptual framework of multiple discrimination and the proposal of anti-discrimination measures. Different methodological strategies of social research are applied. It combines the analysis of available sources and data (literature review, quantitative and qualitative archival data), and material generated by the research team. The first approach includes the analysis of two nationwide surveys on perceived discrimination made in Spain by CIS (the Spanish Centre for Sociological Research), in 2013 and 2016, and Special Eurobarometers on discrimination in European Union from 2006 to 2015 (Special Eurobarometers 263, 317, 393 and 437). The primary data correspond both to qualitative materials (available in institutional or private web sites, or gathered through focus groups and interviews with members of NGOs, policymakers o social experts), and quantitative data from a CAWI survey to professors of Spanish universities. It is a longitudinal comparative study (Spain is compared with other European countries), which shows the evolution of experiences, perceptions and demands to combat discrimination. The diagnosis concludes with the proposal of specific anti-discrimination measures (either from research or social intervention fields), aimed at improving coexistence in increasingly diverse European societies (where different experiences of discrimination converge).
Objective Life Conditions And Interethnic Relations/Representations Between Gypsies and Non-Gypsies In Santa Tecla Neighbourhood, Braga, Portugal
1University of Minho, Portugal; 2National University of Brazilia, Brasil; 3Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Portugal; 4Centro de Estudos Multidisciplinares Avançados (CEAM,PDSCI), Brasil; 5Centro Interdisciplinar de Ciências Sociais (CICS.Nova_UMinho)
In this communication, the authors’ study object was Santa Tecla neighbourhood in Braga (Portugal), a public housing complex composed and inhabited by gypsy and non-gypsy families. We intend to understand and explain not only the emergence of this semi-segregated neighbourhood built in the 1970s, nonetheless how it has remained degraded until nowadays. The research results of a work carried out originally in 2002 and updated in 2018 by a project coordinated by the first author. It aims not only to update data about this neighbourhood, but also to deepen the reasons for the relative social distance between Roma and non-Roma. Data were obtained through several methods and techniques, particularly surveys, interviews and life narratives collected in field work with participant observation.
Once the problem of interethnic relations and representations in a context of urban (peri) contiguity has been questioned, the authors focus the central problem on how to explain the institutional inertia and omission by municipal (and national) public policy, and the absence of initiative and collective action by the neighbourhood interethnic community, despite their proximity in terms of class. Therefore, in addition to seeking to understand and explain the various groups and entities social representations, we highlighted these omissions, silences, both institutional and societal absences, as well as the adoption of individual and familistic strategies within a framework of racial-ethnic exclusion and segregation, patronizing condescension, hence sketching semi-hidden transcripts and/or latent conflicts both at family and community spheres.
Living standards inequality in the European Union between 2004 and 2016 : Multidimensional convergence and fragmentations
1CNRS; 2University of Paris Saclay
The 2008 Great Recession is commonly said to have had serious consequences for Inequality in Europe and in particular in Southern countries (Spain, Greece, and Italy). Massive increase in unemployment is often seen as an heavy source of divergence both within and inter-countries. In this paper we propose to decompose the evolution of inequality in terms of living standards across countries, regions, and social groups. To do so, we use the European Union-Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC, 2004-2016) and the European Community Household Panel surveys (ECHP, 1994-2001) and apply both Geometrical Data Analysis (GDA) and structured data analysis. We show that the 2008 Great Recession has reversed the egalitarian trend that prevailed since the middle of the 1990’s. Until then, the eurozone was in a path of convergence, concerning in particular Eastern Europe and Baltic States lower class. However, the zone remains rather heterogeneous. Since 2008, this trend has stopped and the recession has hit most strongly the lower class of the southern European countries. Greece is the typical case of this evolution, which concerns almost all the social groups and regions, whereas in countries like Italy it remains more limited to certain regions and occupations. Thus the 2008 Great Recession and its aftermaths have led to increasing living standards heterogeneity in the eurozone, and we assess this degree of heterogeneity more precisely, and its evolution during the period. This raises question as to which extent Europe can be politically unified.
The Transformation of the Italian Third Sector Between Marketisation and New Politicization
University of Milan Bicocca, Italy
In the last decades, many Italian third sector actors developed their social activities in the social and political dimension: as providers of social services, as innovators of approaches and repertoires of social action, as advocacy actors claiming for citizens social rights. At the same time, most of them were shaped by the welfare public policies: after being acknowledged for creating or delivering goods and services that the public sector was no longer able to do by itself, they went through a process of incorporation in the welfare public programs. This shift implied a professionalization, standardization and formalization process in their organizations. They strengthened their economic stability and their public legitimization but weakened their autonomy, their innovative potential and their political role of advocacy actors.
The economic crisis started in 2008 had a double effect on this dynamics. On the one hand, the social expenditure retrenchment of central and local governments led them to search for a less dependent relationship with public institutions and potentially to rediscover their own native innovative capacity and advocacy attitude. On the other hand, a national third sector reform was introduced in order to let these organization hybridize with other sectors and to make them more able to live and develop their activities in a market dimension. So now they are more autonomous from the public welfare, but also more dependent from the market logic.
Starting from the literature about civil society and civic engagement, this paper focuses on these third sector transformation processes, by drawing from data and case studies, and on its possibility to keep on playing an innovative and political role in the Italian society.