Sometimes More is Less? Young Finnish-Russian Dual Citizens and the Weight of Citizenship
South-Eastern Finland University of Applied Sciences, Finland
“Citizenship Constellations” research project has explored the variety of ties, identifications and participation of young Finnish-Russian dual citizens in Finland. Although dual citizenship has brought along many benefits, such as unrestricted mobility across the Finnish-Russian border, it has also brought challenges to the lives of young dual citizens. As the political climate has shifted towards neo-nationalism and the tensions between Russia and the “West” has risen, dual citizens’ loyalty and status as plenipotentiary Finnish citizens have been questioned. As a result, the role of Russia and Russianness is getting increasingly restricted in the lives of young dual citizens. Whereas their sense of Finnishness builds on societal participation and vocal membership in the Finnish society, their sense of Russianness becomes private and apolitical. Building on a mixed method approach of representative survey (n=194), thematic interviews (n=25) and media analysis, this presentation explores how a stigma associated with a formal citizenship status can affect dual citizens’ inclusion and participation, as well as their sense of possibilities and belonging both in Finland and Russia. These questions are particularly relevant for young people who are engaged with envisioning their futures and exploring their place and role as citizens of two countries.
Mobility and Active Citizenship
Tallinn University, Estonia
This paper examines active citizenship practices and attitudes among Estonian young people over a 3-year period. Active Citizenship, an amorphous term used to describe various forms of participation in civil society, community and/or political life to foster democracy, encompasses both formal and informal political activities and community organisations. However, there is no shared understanding of the meaning of active citizenship and how young people should acquire the skills, attitudes and knowledge required for it.
The empirical part of the paper is based on semi-structured interviews with young people focusing on their individual perspectives on citizenship. Informants have participated in projects in the framework of Erasmus+, a programme whose aim has been to inspire active citizenship, solidarity and tolerance as well as involve young people in shaping the future of the EU. Young people with an Erasmus+ experience were interviewed 3 times between 2015 and 2018 – before the project, 6-12 months after project and 2-3 years after the project. The analysis focuses on changes in their active citizenship standpoints and practices with respect to the possible impact of the mobility project, as well as other changes in their life and society during their late teens.
Cultural Practices, Daily Life and Participatory Processes of Young People. The Perspective of Cultural Welfare
University of Bologna, Italy
Cultural and artistic practices play a significant role for constructing and consolidating the bases for social cohesion, individual and collective wellbeing and has positive effects at cognitive, behavioural and community level. Particularly for young people, artistic creativity is an everyday activity through which they project meanings and expectations related to their life spaces, social practices and group identities (Willis 1990). Moreover, both cultural consumption and production are significant processes to promote the balance between individual and collective identity (‘what we are’) and the need to act for subjective and social recognition (Honneth 2008)
From this perspective, the presentation considers the culture as a complex and articulated phenomenon, which is represented by a variety of expressive and participatory actions: from leisure activities to forms of critical participation and, sometimes, it constitutes an entrepreneurial sector. To explore the interplay between cultural practices, participation and social inclusion, we adopt the analytical lens of ‘cultural welfare’, which is mainly related to three fields: 1) life styles prevention initiatives; 2) practices of social inclusion for vulnerable people mediated by socio-cultural activities; 3) community building processes.
The proposal reports the findings of an empirical research carried out in Italy, which has involved - through in-depth interviews - young people (aged between 18-35 years) and experts. The research results unmask the myth of passive, detached and uninterested young people. Interviewed young people expose themselves and they devote their energies to create a more inclusive social context, where cultural and artistic practices are catalysts for a renewed sense of ‘togetherness’ (Amin 2012).
Young People and the Making of the Self as Enterprise: New Work Orders and Global Grammars of Enterprise.
1Dept. of Sociology 2. University of the Basque Country, Spain; 2School of Education. RMIT University, Australia
In this paper we want to suggest that 21st century neo-Liberal capitalism is energised by a spirit that sees in the cultivation of the self - as an ongoing, never ending enterprise - an ethically slanted maxim for the conduct of a life (Weber 2002). This spirit is identifiable as an institutionally structured, individualised ethic of enterprise: a structured series of incitements and imperatives to manage the biography as an entrepreneurial DIY project.
This ‘point-of-arrival’ for young people’s ‘transitions’ through education and training, and onto the ‘real’ world of work, is, we will suggest, a complex, precarious risky, and globalising arena central to the process of making a self.
This paper, which is grounded in two ongoing research projects related to self and social enterprise in Europe and Australia, will deploy the analytical concept of global grammars of enterprise to identify, examine and analyse a number of things, including: the shifting, unstable, always strategic power relations between governmental discourses of ‘enterprise’; and the performances and actions of enterprise, the enterprising behaviour and dispositions of persons and groups, the ‘vernacular’, local, particular, ‘translations’ of the ideas of entrepreneurship that organisations and young people perform in particular places. Our use of grammar is a way of addressing the preferred, normative rules of use of the institutional and orthodox representations of the self as enterprising. The concept gestures toward the materiality of agencies, apparatuses and institutions that converge in the implementation and development of an ethic of enterprise.