Invisible Professionals Doing Invisible Work: Professional Identity Construction in the Translation Industry
Newcastle University, United Kingdom
This paper presents preliminary findings from a PhD project that aims to demonstrate how translators construct professional identities in the face of significant challenges. Translators seem to be at a professional tipping point, faced with multiple and conflicting processes and drives. This cohort enables and relies on a globalised economy while being largely freelance, female, and unregulated. Within the industry, the push towards professionalization runs alongside technological developments in machine translation that change how translation is done. End-users of these services often seem unaware of the value of ‘professional’ translation. The organisation of translation work – mainly funnelled through agencies –, the desire for translations that ‘don’t read like a translation’, and the lack of awareness on the part of clients make translators and their work ‘invisible’.
This paper uses assemblage thinking and emergence as a theoretical and methodological underpinning to explore how translators understand their role as ‘professionals’ in a fierce and unregulated market; and how a largely freelance cohort, without the backing of an organisation, incorporates ‘traditional’ professional values and ethics into their ongoing professional project. By foregrounding relations and interconnections, assemblage focusses on how professionalism, in this arguably fledgling professional group, is produced and enacted at micro and macro levels through the interactions of heterogeneous actors. Lastly, this paper demonstrates how the seemingly unstoppable rise of machine translation – perceived as both threat and opportunity – emerges in the professional identities of translators and how it interacts with the value of ‘traditional’ and industry-specific professional skills and traits.
“Coaching for Happiness” An Emerging Professional Field.
Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
The contribution discusses the emergence of a specific professional field: coaching for happiness, as a case study which illustrates current dynamics of international professional regulation and deregulation, in an emerging global digital market of happiness industry.
The case study is part of a research which uncovers the organizational field of the happiness industry (The Happiness Industry Project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities, 2016-2019, Ref. CSO2016-77248-P). The research uses traditional qualitative methods mixed with digital methods very close to the Big Data approach.
We have observed the emergence and consolidation of a new field of expertise within the coaching profession: the happiness coach, differing from the regular life coach, with several agencies providing specific accreditations. This professional field is organized, set and regulated by so-called “international” accreditations, disconnected to the national accreditation systems regulating classical professions.
The happiness coacher, as a new profession, emerges from the positive psychology and the business coaching, operating in the space we define as a happiness market. As a relevant fact, the identified accreditation agencies are offshore, and national states don’t show intention until now to regulate them.
We have found two types of life histories amongst these coachers. One type of coacher comes from universities with a degree in a regulated space, in the boundaries of the national professional organization. Coachers in the second type, do not have a regulated background with university degrees. Both have international accreditations from regulatory agencies offshore.
Designer Profession - Relational Contexts In Defining Dimensions Of A Professional Role. The Case Of Polish Designers.
Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland
Contemporary society, and especially the sphere of economy is saturated with design. Scott Lash and John Urry (1994) drew attention to the fact that that the Post-Fordist society is more reflective and is based on the flow of symbols and signs, so the production system in opposition to mass-produced goods increases the need to look for functional and aesthetic distinctions. Therefore, when uniqueness, idea, individuality counts, it is the work of designers that is becoming a good tool in striving to exist among other competitive sets of offers. However, how to describe a designer's work today, whose education can be comprehensive (no longer limited to artistic or technical schools), and which can be realized in the field of design, from designing everyday objects to solutions in the field of services and activities of the nature of social intervention, close to the artistic sphere. The designer's profession can not be limited to simple classifications, so referring to Abbott's (1988) definition, in this description it is worth to use a relational orientation. Proposition, which most justifies the use of this category, is close to examining the professional role as part of the social network, inspired also by the concept of "the world of art" of Becker (1982/2008), "art field " of Bourdieu (1992). With full awareness of the complexity of the issue, this work attempts to systematize the above issues by embedding designers' work in a wider socio-economic context.
The case study, which will provide empirical descriptions concern research carried out among Polish designers of industrial design and graphic design in the years 2017-2018
Internships and Building a Career in Journalism
University of Brasilia, Brazil
In this paper, I will review the role of internships in the career of Brazilian journalists. A career can be defined as a typical sequence of statuses, roles and remunerations by which a profession is chronologically defined (Tréanton, 1960). Careers establish behavioral patterns that develop in an orderly manner over the course of time. The internships represent a phase within the career of journalism. They are learning stages and would provide practical experience for the professional world and one of the mechanisms that would allow the individual to foresee any uncertainties in the labor market and guarantee (or facilitate) their entry into the profession. A survey conducted by Mick and Lima shows that only 23.7% of active journalists in 2012 had not taken an internship. The increase in the number of internships could be an indication of a broader change within the labor market and job instability within journalism itself. In order to discuss these issues, I conducted interviews with 32 journalists across several generations and different outlets. These journalists’ reports were confronted with other quantitative and qualitative data. The results show that more than just a learning and preparation experience, these experiences make up a career of socializing in journalism and managing the uncertainty of future journalists in newsrooms. Internships are also telling of the transformations in journalism. The streamlining of the hiring process for interns in some more reputable media companies is evidence of increased competition in journalism. This scenario also refers to changes in newsroom hiring procedures which tend to "formalize" this process - which could be seen as increased power for HR sectors in media companies.