Explaining Low Employment Rates of Migrant Women: A Qualitative Study on Labour Market Trajectories of Moroccan women in Belgium
University of Antwerp, Belgium
For the past years, Belgium has been confronted with the one of the lowest employment rates for migrant women. Although previous research has identified several explaining factors regarding the level of labor participation of women with a migration background, we argue that qualitative research on this subject is lacking. Subsequently, this study aims to provide insight in the perceptions, motivations and experiences of Moroccan women with regard to their labor market trajectories. More specifically, we conducted 40 in-depth interviews with both first and second generation Moroccan women living in Belgium. First, our results show that second generation Moroccan women perceive their precarious position on the labour market as a consequence of the difficulties they were confronted with during their educational career. Secondly, in the case of first generation women, the search for employment was hindered by factors such as limited knowledge of the language, information concerning the labour market and day care possibilities. Whereas for second generation women, the headscarf often was considered an import threshold. Finally, we note that migrant women use different strategies to cope with the experienced obstacles in finding work. We conclude this paper with an overview of several policy recommendations.
Labour Market Penalization and Segregation of Immigrants across Europe
1University of Catania, Italy; 2University of Bologna, Italy
The debate on ethnic penalty in the labour market, both in terms of employment status and occupational attainment, has been particularly intense in Europe in recent years (Kogan 2006; 2007; Heath, Cheung, 2007; Pichler, 2011; Reyneri and Fullin, 2011a; 2011b; Ballarino and Panichella, 2015; 2018). The analysis proposed have emphasized, alongside the micro-individual dimension, the macro-institutional one, considering the national or supra-national level (welfare regimes, models of capitalism, regulation systems) as relevant in determining extent and characteristics of ethnic penalty. In particular, it can be traced two different models: in Central-Northern Europe immigrants suffer from a double penalty in comparison to natives, in terms of chances of being employed and having a good job; in Southern-European countries, instead, employment chances are similar between natives and immigrants, but the latter are still more penalized in terms of job quality.
However, when adopting a territorial analysis approach, some studies show a high variability of the ethnic penalty model according to the local labour market structure (Avola 2015a; 2015b). In this perspective, this study aims at verifying the generalizability of these findings exploring the relevance of some characteristics of the labour market at regional level. We conduct the analysis on the Eurostat LFS, focusing on all EU regions (NUT2 level), and estimate a three-level hierarchical multilevel model (Luke 2004) in order to detect to what extent the variance of ethnic penalty in terms of employment chance and job quality is due to the local context (labour market structural effect) or, following a comparative political economy approach (Esping-Andersen 1990; Ferrera 1996; Hall, Soskice, 2001; Burroni, 2016), it is linked to the national or supra-national level (macro-institutional factors effect).
"For the Africans, the skin color is still there" - The Influence of Origin, Ethnicity and Ethnic Networks on the Labor Market Integration of Refugees in Germany
1Freie Universität Berlin, Germany; 2Institute for Employment Research, Germany
In the aftermath of 2015, European labor markets are challenged by the integration of a large number of refugees from different origins. In advanced industrial societies, paid work is a prerequisite for a non-marginal social status and a key source for personal recognition (Honneth 1996). Although deeper and systematic knowledge about successful and sustainable mediation of refugees in work is still hardly available, initial research indicates that refugees show a strong orientation towards employment despite varying educational biographies due to the situation in their respective countries of origin (Brücker et al. 2016, p.1).
Considering these different starting points, the present paper deals with the question of how refugees of different origins, educational backgrounds age and gender can make use of formal and informal capital types and resources (see Bourdieu 1984; 1989) achieved in their respective countries of origin in order to gain access to the German labor market. How do different refugee groups open up opportunities for social integration and recognition through labor market integration respectively what hindrances do they face? Based on exemplary case constellations in different regions of Germany drawn from an ongoing comparative qualitative study it will be discussed how origin, ethnicity and ethnic networks moderate these adaptation processes. The paper triangulates views of different groups of refugees and of labor market-related actors. Thus, subjective strategies of refugees are related to the role institutions and structural factors play in the occurrence of different positionings and inequalities between different groups in respect to labor market and social integration.
Labour Market Segregation And Social Assistance Beneficiaries Working For “Benefits”.
The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the effect of lack of representation at the workplace of social assistance beneficiaries in Luxembourg working for compulsory public works.
As the role of trade unions and staff delegations is to represent and negotiate working conditions for employees, as well as to defend their rights at the workplace, the lack of workplace representation of social assistance beneficiaries working for benefits increases the risk of segregation for this sub-group.
The aim of the paper is twofold: First, we analyse the role of Luxembourg’s social partners within the framework of Luxembourg’s neo-corporatist industrial relations system compulsory staff representation in structures with at least 15 employees and existing collective agreements concerning their coverage of specific sub-group.
Second, we analyse how the experienced lack of workplace representation increases the risk of segregation and how it affects the self-perception and environment of an already stigmatised population group.
In a qualitative framework, the first part uses content analysis of documents published by social partners (opinion to bills, press releases, statements) as well as of eligible collective agreements. In the second part, we link the results of the document analyses to the analyses of biographical and semi-structured qualitative interviews with the concerned sub-group.
Our preliminary findings suggest that the absence of representation at the workplace by collective actors reinforces the experienced segregation of beneficiaries, which impedes equal handling at the workplace.