The Transnationalization Of Lifeworlds In Europe – A Stimulus For Value Convergence?
Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Germany
As a results of Europe’s political unification, also its societies and citizenries have become more interrelated. As previous research has established, the chance of ordinary citizens of being involved in cross-border activities (individual transnationalism) largely follows two social gradients, an education gradient, and an – reversed – age gradient. My paper is interested in the consequences of unequal transnationalism for the cultural values endorsed by “cosmopolitans” (those groups with a high likelihood of individual transnationalism) and “locals” (those with a low likelihood).
My assumption is that the widening of social lifeworlds that individual transnationalism implies has a socialization effect and thus impacts particularly on the values endorsed by the cosmopolitan group in society. Based on this assumption, two hypotheses are derived: (1) Within societies, there is a value divergence between the cosmopolitans and the locals. (2) Between societies, there is a convergence of values among the cosmopolitans, but not among the locals.
These hypotheses are put to an empirical data using the Schwartz Human Value Scale from the European Social Surveys (ESS) 2002-2016. The analysis involves three steps. The first step analysis which values are typically endorsed by cosmopolitans (defined as highly-educated, below 40 years old) and locals (defined as lowly educated, above 40 years old). The second step involves a trend analysis of value scores aggregated for these two groups, computing measures of sigma- and gamma-convergence. Finally, multi-level regression models reveal whether for the cosmopolitans in particular the nation state has lost its power to shape individual values.
Impact of Transnational European Practices on the Development of Individual Outlooks.
Russian State University for the Humanity, Russian Federation
Europe, especially in recent years, has become a source for the development of many social practices that spread outside the EU. Many processes facilitated this: the creation of the European Union and its relations with other countries, the implementation of the mechanism of the Pan-European Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe in the military-political, economic fields and in other areas, including the expansion of contacts between people from different countries. Because of the active use of these transnational values and practices, many of the existing barriers between the countries that signed the Helsinki Act were broken. This dramatically increased the flow of information, material things and people between countries using this mechanism of cooperation. Unfortunately, in recent years, these processes of reducing barriers and the spread of transnational practices have become obstructed by both the state administrations of a number of countries and by right-wing, nationalist and populist forces and movements. The purpose of my research is to study the effects of the spread of transnational European values and practices on the individual consciousness and public opinion of people living in Russia. After 1991, citizens of the Russian Federation began to visit the EU countries much more frequently, their economic and personal contacts, as well as information about European social practices, expanded significantly. How did this affect their worldview? The empirical database of the study includes the results of public opinion polls on these topics, as well as a content analysis of the media and the results of my author’s research.
A Global Sociological Approach To The Problem Of A Devaluation Of The Humanities Within The University
University Institute of Lisbon (ISCTE-IUL), CIES-IUL, Lisbon, Portugal
The devaluation of the humanities is a social phenomenon that has been gradually spreading around the world in the last forty years. This paper constitutes an analysis of a finalized sociological research project which focused on this devaluation, and its main goal is to share some solutions that were found to handle the inherent complexity of a global sociological approach.
Two main topics are covered – the authors that were selected to lay out the fundamentals behind the research, and the combination of methodologies that were used to make it possible. These choices facilitated an analysis and synthesis that are multidimensional in nature, allowing for the identification of ideas and actors that have been at the roots of this devaluation.
The paper also seeks to demonstrate how a global sociological approach enables us to later conduct better local research. The case of The School of Arts and Humanities of the University of Lisbon is the current object of study due to its contrast with current trends of the devaluation of the humanities. In spite of the political guidelines that were identified as potentially problematic in the global study, a recent initiative can be clearly observed in this institution to promote and transmit the humanities and other non-specialized knowledge, to a great degree of student engagement and success.
Finally, these two studies look to explore the potential influence of sociology in the public sphere, with the hope that they contribute in some way to a recognition of the value of studying the humanities.
Globalization and Citizenship Policies
1University Gabriele d'Annunzio, Chieti-Pescara, Italy; 2PUCPR, Brazil
The aim of this proposal is the globalization processes, their interdependence and their global consequences and more in details, the triple helix among globalization, development and citizenship evolution policies. The definition processes of citizenship are more and more dependent on models, relationships and situations that occur and spread in different distant places. The privileged audience of citizenship narratives is not necessarily placed in the contexts of our material life and it not constitutes part of networks of our direct relations. Current global citizenships tends to fade the various types of borders among peoples and among members and lastly global citizenship seems to design the future towards the existence of a systemic planetary society, while, particularisms, secessionisms, bloody tribal strives, ethnic, racial, and religious intolerance abound as resonant reactions for the outer environment noise. Current history shows therefore a situation of paradoxical idea of global citizenships, which tends to dissolve various types of borders between peoples, stimulates or produces massive migrations, the mixing of cultures and traditions, and seems to project the future towards the existence of a planetary society, while, on the other hand, more and more particularisms, secessionisms, bloody tribal strives, and ethnic, racial, and religious intolerance abound. The common result of these opposing trends is an increasing identity recombination which leads towards common heritage of values, customs, ideals and commitments.