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Session Chair: Marta Smagacz-Poziemska, Jagiellonian University
Location:BS.3.19 Manchester Metropolitan University
Building: Business School, Third Floor, North Atrium
Newcomers in a Traditional Neighborhood: Middle Class Values and Gentrification
Clarissa dos Santos Veloso, Luciana Teixeira de Andrade
Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Brazil
This paper aims at analyzing the ''construction of belonging'' narratives and the motivation to reside by dwellers of a central and old neighborhood in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Empirical data analyzed consists of interviews with newcomers of Floresta, a neighborhood listed by the Deliberative Council of the Municipal Cultural Heritage of Belo Horizonte. Interviewees address their motivations for living in Floresta and their sense of belonging in three interlinked spheres: the neighborhood's centrality, its heritage status and its lifestyles. Heritage is revealed in its material and intangible dimensions, which are based on the residents own experience but also on external representations and stereotypes about Floresta. In addition, newcomers refer to Floresta's characteristics, focusing on its central location as one of the greater attributes, and also on its ways of life, which mixes references to the individualized and intense life in big cities with the appreciation for aspects that allude to the countryside. Newcomers weave a nostalgic and apparently contradictory, although complementary, narrative of enjoyment of the metropolis in its plurality of beings and possibilities, while simultaneously longing for personal and close social interactions in the neighborhood and also for a sense of community and belonging. We examine the relation between the taste and motivation of this middle class group that moved to Floresta and the values of gentrifiers and urban spaces going through gentrification, a field that until now has been little studied in Brazil if considered the residential form of the phenomenon.
The Political Consequences of Gentrification
Jan Ueblacker1, Tim Lukas2
1FGW, Germany; 2University of Wuppertal, Germany
Considerable debate and controversy continue regarding the effects of gentrification on cities, neighborhoods and residents. While there is a significant amount of research describing the residents’ perceptions of neighborhood change and their strategies to cope with it before eventually being displaced, only few is known about the extent to which a city’s population is concerned with displacement pressure. Ethnographic accounts understand gentrification and displacement as a form of neighborhood inequality associated with a loss of identity, boundary making processes and feelings of economic marginalization. Seen in the light of the current debates on populism and political participation, our study asks for the political consequences of gentrification on the individual level.
We draw on survey data from three German cities (Düsseldorf, Leipzig, Munich) to examine the relationship between displacement pressure and political attitudes. Following the basic assumption, that people act upon their individual perceptions instead of “objective“ information (“Thomas Theorem”), we conceptualize displacement pressure as a combination of (1) perceived changes in social structure, built environment, retail landscape and (2) a strong dislike towards these changes. The resulting cognitive dissonance between the image of the neighborhood “as it used to be” and the ongoing structural changes can be understood as displacement pressure(Marcuse 1985). In consistency with current explanations for extreme political orientations (Inglehart/Norris 2016) we further assume that residents experiencing displacement pressure have a higher tendency to either non-vote or vote for extreme parties.
Initial analysis indicate both that displacement pressure is primarily perceived through structural improvements and rental increases, and that high perceptions of gentrification and a negative evaluation go along with voting for political parties on the fringes of the spectrum.
New Inequalities In A Context Of Urban Regeneration. How Tourism And Gentrification Can Change The Trade Sector At The City Of Bilbao
Patricia Campelo1, Marian Ispizua2
1UNIVERSITY OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY, Spain; 2UNIVERSITY OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY, Spain
The urban transformation of neighborhoods located near city centers, as well as the widespread phenomenon of tourism, usually involve gentrification processes that ultimately cause the displacement of part of the original population.
A variant of these gentrification processes are the transformations of some traditional markets of supplies. The specialized literature has baptized and analyzed these processes as market gourmetization, elitist consumption (Sorando y Andura, 2016; Rodriguez Sebastian, 2017; Gonzalez y Waley, 2013; Smith, Mayi e Ilvery, 2014).
In the case of the markets of supply, the displacement takes place in two levels. On the one hand, the type of shops and the original and new merchants of the stalls of the market itself, as well as the traditional customers and the new profiles and, on the other hand, the transformations in the most immediate environment. This is the case of “Mercado de la Ribera” located in the Casco Viejo, next to the Bilbao’s river.
This paper analyzes the processes of socio-spatial change that have taken place in recent years in La Ribera supply market (Bilbao) and how could be framed in the line of turistification and gentrification processes that have occurred in other places (San Miguel and San Antón Markets in Madrid or Santa Caterina or La Boquería in Barcelona). On the one hand, the socio-spatial transformations that occurred in the La Ribera Market and its immediate surroundings have been studied through secondary data and, on the other hand, the opinions of the intervening social actors are taking into account using qualitative methodology.