Understanding Attitudes Toward Immigration in Cities with High and Low Immigrant-Population: Empirical Results of a Postal Survey from Two German Cities
Technische Universität Dresden, Germany
Post WW2 Germany has been divided into a communist eastern sector (GDR) and capitalist western sector. Disparities in culture and norms between the citizens of East and West Germany are still anchored in people's minds even 30 years after reunification. This holds particularly true for the historically grown differences in attitudes toward foreigners that also express in election results of right wing political parties in the “old” and “new” federal states. In the paper we will present empirical results from a survey that has been conducted in the context of the research-project SiQua within the cities Dresden (former GDR part) and Essen (West part) at the begin of 2019. Whereas Essen seems to have a greater acceptance of refugees, Dresdens´ inhabitants have the reputation of tending a strong antipathy towards refugee-immigrants even though the cities’ foreigner-proportion is still much lower compared to most other German cities. With the help of Heitmeyer´s Theory of Social Disintegration we test the Hypotheses that with rising emotional commitment to the East part of Germany anti-immigration attitudes increase, while the regional commitment to West Germany has no comparable effect. Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to compare the results between Dresden and Essen. At the same time we take into consideration further explanatory variables e.g. social insecurities, deprivation, experience of discrimination, education, age, and urban fear of crime. Empirical results are discussed in the light of transformations of urban communities related to the recent migration wave and its association with fear of change and the unknown.
A Study on the Meaning and Value of Housing for Migrant Workers
Seoul National University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
This study explores the meaning of housing for migrant workers and the social interactions in residential space in Korea. A stable residential space is recognized as a basic condition and necessary social desire for human living, and it is meaningful in that it reflects human life while providing an essential space for living. Nonetheless, exploring the meaning of housing is often not done properly in the case of the vulnerable people who have a lot of economic and social constraints in choosing the residential space. In particular, most of the immigrants who entered into Korea through the Employment Permit System (EPS) live in housing provided by companies because of the economic reasons, and these are mostly non-residential buildings such as containers and vinyl greenhouses. Therefore, in Korea, many studies pay attention to the physical conditions such as the inferiority of the residential environment. However, studies focused on physical conditions have limitations in examining the interactions and social relations among migrants in residential space. In other words, the physical condition of being comfortable, safe and equipped with better facilities may not the first factor of consideration for choosing the house. Therefore, this study analyzes the discourse related to immigrant housing in Korea and examines what factors are important for migrant workers and how interactions and social relations are structured and stabilized through residential space. For this task, I analyzed the literature on immigrant housing in Korea and interviewed migrant workers.
Incorporating Ethno-cultural Diversity In Local Civil Society In Superdiverse Urban Neighbourhoods. The Case Of Borgerhout In Antwerp.
Department of Sociology, University of Antwerp, Belgium
Local civil society organizations play a crucial role in supporting coexistence and generating social cohesion in urban neighbourhoods. However, their community building capacity is seriously hampered by the difficulties they encounter in incorporating the increasing ethnic and cultural diversity in cities. This paper is concerned with identifying the conditions under which local civil society in superdiverse neighbourhoods in Western cities succeeds in incorporating ethnic and cultural diversity. The paper focuses on Borgerhout in the Belgian city of Antwerp, which is both a prime example of Belgian urban multiculture and of vigorous extreme-right organizing. We start our analysis from the survey-based observation that in general both membership and leadership of local civil society organizations in Antwerp is pre-dominantly white and does not reflect well the existing ethno-cultural diversity in society. We also observe that while local civil society organizations tend to value ‘community building’ more than other civil society roles, building community with citizens with a different social background is valued significantly less. This suggests a civil society context which discourages ethnic-culturally mixed civil society organizations. Against this background, we explore socially innovative practices that work to incorporate ethno-cultural diversity in local civil society in the neighbourhood Borgerhout in Antwerp. We find that, despite the hostile environment created by the electoral rise of the extreme-right in the 1980s and 1990s and more recently the trend towards neo-assimilationalist urban diversity policies, a more ethnically mixed local civil society is slowly but steadily emerging in the neighbourhood, which is amongst others related to the emergence of an immigrant middle class, the supportive role played by social work organisations and the bottom-up dynamics in youth and sport clubs.
Rap Music as a Tool Against Urban Exclusion and Racism: the Portuguese case
Center for Social Studies - University of Coimbra, Portugal
The artistic practices of afrodescendants in Lisbon metropolitan area are an emerging phenomenon of urban culture, which allows processes of access to the city, denouncement of racism or against social and economic exclusion. Rap music in Portugal has been, for a long time, a tool of black youth to denounce racism, police brutality, poverty, urban exclusion or the denying of access to the city. Many Rap lyrics, images or imaginaries bring us to new and silenced urban landscapes.
Among afrodescendants in Portugal, Rap has been also used to build networks, and artists, internet videos and their music circulate between neighbourhoods, different peripheries and to the centre of the city. Networks and places of sociabilities build around Rap music are central to understand the struggle of black youth for the “Right to the City”.
In the last years, Lisbon has become a growing known touristic destination and today it is suffering a deep process of gentrification. Afrodescendant artistic practices have been gaining some space in the city. However, peripheral black youth continue to be deeply excluded from the city, living many times in self-constructed neighbourhoods or housing projects in the suburbs and unable to access the city.
Rap music and Hip Hop culture bring us important questions of Lisbon city life as: racism, police violence, poverty, unemployment and urban exclusion. Based on archival research (music, audio and video) and ethnography on peripheral neighbourhoods and places of sociabilities, this contribution intends to understand the role of Rap as a tool to the access of the city.
Centring Place In The Analyses Of Black Mixed Race Identity
University of Manchester, United Kingdom
When the function of place is referenced in mixed race studies, it is often evoked through the topics of heritage, family trees and racial ancestry (Gaskins 1999, Sims 2016), or the focus is centred on how national contextual effects impact on the formation of mixed race identities (Caballero 2005; Joseph-Salisbury 2016; Mitchell 2013; King-O'Riain et al 2014). In some analyses, place is even treated as a mere backdrop which fails to recognise how it functions as a major point of reference for ethnic identifications. Drawing on 37 interviews with Black mixed race people aged 20-56 years old in the post-colonial, post-industrial city of Birmingham (UK) this paper warns against the continued absence of place in critical mixed race studies. It identifies how mixed race identities intersect with immediate localities by showing how attachments to the local and departures from it were particularly transformative for their racial selves. Neighbourhoods were the blueprint which they worked from to negotiate their ethnic identities. Lessons regarding race in the home were made legible, when they were contextualised in the broader spaces beyond that boundary which were loaded with racial symbols and histories (Keith 2005; Amin 2002). Despite the tendency in studies on mixed race to privilege racial identity as a defining feature of the mixed race experience, this paper argues that mixed race identity becomes knowable through places inhabited and moved through. By situating mixed race identities within the thick material context of the city the paper demonstrates the agency and power that place has in organising social life and identities.