Social Status, Social Structure and Space - Social Inequality in Germany and its Consequences for the People
1DIW Berlin Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP); 2University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland
Social inequality, understood as an unequal distribution of resources (e.g. income, education), manifest unequal social participation and different scopes and chances of social action. Social inequality manifests itself in different ways, between different population groups and between territories, e.g. regions, city districts and residential areas. The spatial accumulation of people with low social status has an own quality, often labeled as the “double discrimination of poor people” (Friedrichs/Blasius 2000).
In this presentation, we will dynamically describe different forms of spatial related social inequalities for Germany and examine its impact on individuals. In a first step, we will characterize ethnic and social segregation in Germany for the years 2007 to 2015, by using small-scale spatial data (500 households per subregion on average) for all municipalities in Germany. In a second step, we turn to representative longitudinal SOEP data at the individual level and compare his or her socioeconomic situation to the social structure of the neighborhood and the mediate area in which the person lives. In a third step we will examine the significance of spatial related social inequality on aspects of individual well-being including aspects of satisfaction and of social cohesion like trust in institutions and perceptions of justice.
The possibility to connect household survey data from the SOEP (SOEP V33.1) and territorial-spatial information (microm) based on exact geo-coordinates is a special feature that enables to research spatial implications of social inequality in Germany and its consequences for individual wellbeing.
The Effect of Urban Transformation on Senior Citizens’ Social and Economic Capital: The Case of Istanbul
1Abant İzzet Baysal University, Turkey; 2Yıldız Teknik University, Turkey; 3Ministry of National Education; 4Istanbul University
The subject of this study is to reveal how the urban transformation has done publicly in Istanbul has impacted the levels of social and economic capital for individuals aged 65 and older. On this point, the questions of the extent to which and how urban transformation answers or doesn’t answer the needs and expectations of the elderly, being the most fragile, also gain importance. The senior citizens with low socioeconomic status residing in settlements that have run up against publicly-handled urban transformation increase the importance of this study because, in this way, the effects of publicly-handled urban transformation can be exposed. The purpose of this study is to explain how and why urban transformation affects which components of both senior citizens’ quality of life, as well as their social and economic capital that can be considered in connection with this, in the contexts of ageing in place, active ageing, and the phenomena of social exclusion or social integration. The universe of the study is composed of neighbourhoods in Istanbul that have run up against publicly-handled urban transformation. While the sample has been determined using the purposeful/guided sampling technique, the number of individuals who would be applied the questionnaire in the districts and related neighbourhoods that have experienced publicly-handled urban transformation has been determined using the proportionally stratified sampling technique. The quantitative data collection technique has been used as the data collection technique, and in this context, 1,800 senior citizens have been applied the questionnaire by way of direct interviews. Evaluating the data by transferring to the computer environment was performed by means of the quantitative data analysis program, SPSS.
All City and no Play: Tackling Urban Inequality Through the Study of Child (Un)Friendly Public Spaces
1University of Porto / Institute of Sociology, FLUP, Portugal; 2University of Lisbon, SOCIUS/CSG, ISEG
Recent research points out the relevance of environment and physical context for children’s individual and social development. Despite this evidence, children’s practices, needs and desires are scarcely included in urban planning and urban public spaces are often designed by and for “adults”. Previous research has highlighted changes in “children's geographies” and inequalities in their access to the city (at the symbolic level but at the material one as well). On the other hand, intergenerational, interclass, interethnic and intergender ties established through urban sociabilities in public spaces can be paramount for enriching the city as place for cultural diversity. Starting from an ethnography carried out in the city of Porto, Portugal, which is currently experiencing an accelerated process of gentrification and housing crisis, we discuss the first results within the scope of the project CRiCity. Drawing from the data collected through observation, field diaries, walking along and interviews at two parks in the city of Porto (in Paranhos and Campanhã), we show how age, gender, class and ethnicity are intertwined, shaping the uses of public space, urban sociabilities and belonging to the city. We also present the first recommendations for including children in the urban planning as a way to effectively address their “right to the city” and their “right to participation”, as enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 30 years ago.
Project “Children and their right to the city: Tackling urban inequity through the participatory design of child friendly cities” (CRiCity) has funding from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology.
The Right to the City: Mass Tourism and the challenges for Public Spaces
Ca' Foscari, University of Venice, Italy
In recent years, several cities and countries around the globe have started to pay attention to the negative outcomes associated to the global tourism industry. From the so-called touristification or Disneyfication of the city centers to the impact of anti-social behavior on the host communities, the relation between tourists numbers and the (re)definition of public spaces has been associated to the broader discussion on the "right to the city" (as originally proposed by Lefebvre, and later re-interpreted by Harvey, Purcell, among other).
This paper focuses on the discussion on the notion of public spaces, describing the challenges that the ever-increasing number of tourists are generating in both the physical spaces and particularly in the uses (lived spaces) of the city. For example, both fishermen in Venice and sexual workers in Amsterdam indicate that their livelihoods are threatened by masses of tourists that are only interested in capturing photos for their Instagram. With a particular emphasis on the policing of 'anti-social behavior of tourists', and the proposed solutions to control them by local authorities in Venice, Amsterdam and Barcelona, this paper explores the risks of policing the city based in 'us versus them' narratives, explains the limits of the solutions based on the re-location or re-education of the tourists, and addresses the impact that this over-policing might have in the lives of local citizens.
This paper is part of the onging RIGHTS UP project 2018-2020 (Marie Curie IF) and will present a theoretical reflection based on preliminary results and will discuss some empirical information collected in situ in the aforementioned cities (through observation, informal conversations, media analysis, visual sociology, social media analysis, etc.)