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Session Chair: Dinah Gross, University of Lausanne
Location:UP.3.210 University of Manchester
Building: University Place, Third Floor
The Distribution of Teachers in a Marketised School System. The Case of Sweden 1995-2016
Uppsala University, Sweden
Since introducing several market-oriented reforms in the early 1990s, the Swedish school system has moved towards increased differentiation, social segregation and growing competition between schools in local school markets (Bender & Kornhall 2018, Brandén & Bygren 2018). Growing evidence suggests that this trend also involves an increased pedagogic segregation based on teacher competencies (Hansson & Gustafsson 2016, OECD 2014) and rising teacher turnover rates (Karbownik 2014). Some of this turnover is attributed to non-pecuniary factors, e.g. larger turnover rates at schools with a high proportion of immigrant students (Hansson & Gustafsson 2016, Falch & Strøm 2005). However, most studies of Swedish teachers analyses these transitions on an aggregated level not taking into account variations between and within local school markets. Furthermore, the majority of these studies are conducted within the field of econometrics, which imply a shortage of sociological interpretations within the research field. Hence, this study is a contribution to the discussion on both teacher-turnover and teacher sorting by taking into account not only the apparent differences between local school markets ‑ regarding for instance the degree of market exposure and segregation patterns ‑ but also by analysing the strategies that emerge among teachers with different capital compositions (Bourdieu 1989). Using longitudinal datasets on all teachers and all students in compulsory schools (grade 1 to 9) in Sweden, the years 1995-2016, this study both confirms the overall findings of increased pedagogic segregation but also disclose new patterns of teacher sorting.
Tracking Teacher Pride of Course! A Study On How Track Position And Subject Matter Influence The Feelings Of Pride In Belgian teachers.
Lorenz Dekeyser, Mieke Van Houtte, Peter Stevens
Universiteit Gent, Belgium
The aim of this paper is to gain insight in the relationship between teachers’ track position and the feelings of pride (cfr. private regard) they hold towards that specific track. Tracking is used to describe the organizational structure of an educational system that groups students in various curricula based on their ability. There are curricula focusing on academic achievement while other tracks are oriented towards the labor market. Previous research has shown that different statuses are ascribed to these different tracks. Subsequently this might affect the private regard of the teachers employed within these tracks, which could undermine their morale and performance. Furthermore this study investigates the role of being a track-specific teacher in moderating this relationship. To test this model the data of the Belgian SIS (school, identity and society)-survey is used, a large scale dataset gathered in 2017 containing the self-reports of 450 teachers, clustered in 22 secondary schools. The results of a multilevel analysis show that there is a significant positive effect of teaching in technical or vocational tracks in comparison to teaching in the academic track, so the former holding higher levels of private regard. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that this relationship is not moderated by being a track-specific teacher. No significant variation was detected at the school level. These results go against the theoretical expectations and suggest that other dynamics are at play in understanding teachers’ private regard.
Leaving My Teaching Job Or Leaving My School?” – The Role Of SES Composition, Teachability Perceptions, Emotional Exhaustion And Self-efficacy
Ama Amitai, Lennart Van Eycken, Mieke Van Houtte
Ghent University, Belgium
Teacher turnover is problematic for teachers and students as it negatively impacts educational quality. Especially for low SES students, an unstable teaching staff can be detrimental for their schooling career. However, teacher turnover and teacher mobility are often intermixed in studies and may not have the same association with the students’ SES composition. In addition, research has shown that teachers’ teachability perceptions of the students increase teachers’ level of burnout and turnover intentions. However, these teachability perceptions often first influence teachers’ level of emotional exhaustion and self-efficacy, which affects their turnover intentions. In this study, we investigate whether the SES composition impacts teachers’ intention to quit and intention to transfer schools. Furthermore, we analyse whether both intentions are impacted by teachability perceptions and if this association is mediated by emotional exhaustion and self-efficacy. Through a multilevel analysis, we investigated the Procrustes data (2012-2013) of 1087 teachers and 6234 students in 58 Flemish secondary schools. Preliminary results show that the SES composition is only associated with teachers’ intention to transfer schools. In addition, more negative teachability perceptions increase teachers’ intentions to transfer, both through a direct effect of teachability as through a mediation via emotional exhaustion. Self-efficacy only has an indirect effect on intention to transfer through emotional exhaustion. The intention to quit does not vary across schools. Teachability perceptions only have an indirect effect on intention to quit via emotional exhaustion. However, self-efficacy has both a direct effect on intention to quit and an indirect effect through emotional exhaustion.
Teacher Absence And Student Outcomes
Nicolai T. Borgen1, Simen Markussen2, Oddbjørn Raaum2
1University of Oslo, Norway; 2The Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research
Studies find that teachers’ absence rate is about three to six percent in countries such as the US, the UK, and Norway, which translates to about 6-9 absence days per school year for an average teacher. When teachers are absent, the school may substitute the ordinary teacher with a less qualified teacher (compositional effects), or worse, cancel the class because no substitute teacher is available. Additionally, disruption of routines, lack of meaningful student-teacher relationship, lack of knowledge about specific students’ skills, and failure to implement the long-term instructional strategies may result in impaired learning. In this paper, we use Norwegian register data to examine the effects of teacher absence in lower secondary schools (8th-10th grade) on academic achievements and attainment. To account for selection, we include school fixed effects and controls for prior test scores. With this value-added school fixed effects model, we find that teacher absence results in lower examination grades from 10th grade (age 16) and decreases the probability of completing upper secondary school by the age of 21. Robustness tests indicate that there is causal effect of teacher absence, and not that teachers get sick leaves because of students with behavioral problems or because of students who struggle academically (reverse causality).