Food Safety in Domestic Kitchen In France, Norway, Portugal, Romania And The UK: The Social Practices Of Judging If The Chicken Is Properly Cooked
1Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway; 2University of Galati, Romania; 3University of Galati, Romania; 4G-ESA, France; 5University of Lisbon, Portugal; 6Keele University, UK
It is often said that domestic kitchens and home cooks are to blame for much of the occurrences of foodborne illnesses. Estimates say that nearly forty percent of foodborne outbreaks are caused in the domestic sphere. Still, how food risk is handled by home cooks has been remarkably absent in the research literature, despite the estimated impact. High levels of pathogens found on chicken meat makes it a risky food to eat, especially if not properly cooked. This paper employs theories of practices to investigate how food safety is handled when chicken is on the menu among families with young children, elderly and young single men in France, Norway, Portugal, Romania and the UK and discusses video data of cooking performances in 75 households from different food cultures and supply structures. Judging if the chicken is properly cooked was an ongoing activity during cooking and heating among the cooks in this study. Meanwhile, it involved various activities, techniques, skills, use of tools and sensory and mental capacities depending on engaging with various kinds of materials (e.g. the type of chicken meat cooked, access to and use of utensils and cooking appliances). The paper thus argues that judging if food is safe to eat is a social practice shaped by the food supply and by national food cultural traditions. Reducing the health-burden of foodborne illnesses needs to bring attention to how safe and unsafe food handling is embedded into everyday food practices and shaped by the socio-material infrastructure of food supply and by food cultural regimes.
Transdisciplinary Ideas On Cooking: How Theories Of Practices Can Help Solving The Societal Challenge Of Food Safety In Europe
OsloMet, Norway, SIFO
Transdisciplinary projects tend to bring together different disciplines, research traditions, ideals and conceptual and methodological toolkits. To some extent, they need to build on shared conceptual model of the problems to be studied that integrate and transcend these divisions. This paper ask how Theories of Social Practices can be used to guide transdisciplinary analysis of microbial and sociological data in order to research societal challenges of food safety in novel ways.
Recent analyses from WHO estimate that bacteria, parasites, toxins and allergens in food account for about 23 million cases of illness and 5 000 deaths in Europe every year. The Horizon 2020-project, SafeConsumE, aims at reducing the health burden from foodborne illnesses by employing transdisciplinary methods. In all 75 households in five countries (France, Norway, Romania, Portugal and the UK) have been observed and interview while shopping, transporting, storage and cooking. This paper use data from cooking observation of 15 household in Norway conducted by microbiologist and social scientist in collaboration.
The study brings attention to how differently social and natural scientists approach these questions and what it takes to cooperate. This paper thus argue that applying Theories of Practices enables the microbiologists to model how microbes grow or disappear in relation to the things, performances, skill and ideas of real people in their daily life. Similarly, shedding light on invisible microbes in kitchens, enable the social scientist to analyze how microbes are a part of shared social practices. Reducing the health-burden of foodborne illnesses needs to bring attention to how safe and unsafe food handling are contextually depended on everyday life.
Food Practices and trust: handling chicken in European kitchens
1University of Lisbon, Portugal; 2Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Romania; 3Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway; 4INRA / G-ESA, France; 5Keele University, UK
This presentation refers to a transdisciplinary research conducted on food safety practices and food trust in families from 5 European countries and is based on qualitative and visual data collected under the European project – SafeConsume through 75 go along interviews (with the aid of a video camera) following consumers from shopping to the preparation of a chicken meal in their kitchens.
The material collected revealed a common pattern in Portugal and Romania, different from the other three countries (UK, Norway and France): most families washed raw poultry meat before cooking. Microbiologists and health professionals advise against washing chicken due to the risk of campylobacter contamination, a controversial topic in this field. Poultry is highly consumed in all countries, but food safety campaigns advising the population to not wash chicken are unknown in Portugal and Romania, while they exist in Norway and the UK. Romanian families justified this practice as something they have learned with their parents (usually mothers). Portuguese families mentioned the lack of trust in hygiene practices of small butchers and the sliminess of the meat, whereas if the meat was packaged in plastic and bought in big food retailers, some did not see the need to wash the chicken as it was perceived as cleaned. This unveils a puzzling issue regarding the image of plastic in packaging, as despite its environmental burdens, it conveys an image of safety and hygiene for consumers, and of transparency of industrial practices in the chicken provisioning system. The paper contributes to debates informed by an institutional approach on food trust, consumption and food provisioning systems (Kjaernes, Harvey and Warde, 2007).
Unequal Households and the Management of Multiple, Complex and Conflicting Priorities in Everyday Food Practices
1Keele University, United Kingdom; 2Manchester University, United Kingdom
Everyday life in households is characterised by multiple, complex and conflicting priorities (Halkier 2010; Warde 1997). This is illustrated especially clearly in relation to everyday food practices, where consumers and cooks are always negotiating between a range of priorities, from concerns over value for money, health, taste and safety, through to matters of provenance, sustainability and broader questions that connect with a politics/ethics of food (Johnson et al. 2015; Meah and Watson 2012). In this paper, we explore the significance of wealth inequality for how domestic cooks negotiate between the different and multiple priorities that circulate in social life in relation to their food practices. In the context of growing food poverty in the UK (O’Connell 2017), we are especially interested in whether ‘being strapped for cash’ dominates over other food priorities. We also explore whether there is ‘room’ in the considerations of consumers for the priority of sustainable food (Johnson et al. 2015) and where food safety features in the concerns of consumer-cooks. We present a mixed-methods analysis, drawing on transdisciplinary qualitative fieldwork and survey questionnaire results on the food practices – from retail to fork – of UK consumers, which was carried out as part of the EU Horizon2020 project SafeConsumE.