Europe and Beyond: Boundaries, Barriers and Belonging
Manchester, United Kingdom, 20 – 23 August 2019
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Location: BS.1.25 |
Manchester Metropolitan University Building: Business School, First Floor, North Atrium Oxford Road
|Date: Wednesday, 21/Aug/2019|
|11:00am - 12:30pm||JS_RN20_RN28_01: Qualitative Research in the Field of Sport and Embodiment|
Session Chair: Honorata Jakubowska, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland
Session Chair: Florian Elliker, University of St.Gallen
‘Contact Zones’ of Knowledge Communication: Touching and Sensing Bodies in Youth Training and Dementia Diagnosis
Leibniz Institute for Research on Society and Space, Germany
Phenomenological, anthropological and cultural-historical studies (i.e. Merleau-Ponty 1966, Classen 2012, Howes 2018) provide deep insights into the meaning of senses and especially of touch. Sociology (of the body) struggles to examine the social relevance of tactile and haptic modes of accessing reality. Even Simmel’s extremely fruitful 'sociology of the senses' focused primarily on seeing, hearing or smelling. However, considering specific social contexts and the (professional) knowledge about and of the body, touching other bodies is a central component of various communicative practices.
The contribution approaches the communicative production of these social “contact zones” from an interactionist perspective, using videographic data (Tuma et al. 2013) on knowledge communication in youth sports training (Singh 2019) and on dementia diagnosis situations. It will be asked how sociality is structured by the coordinated interplay of communicative actions (Knoblauch 2013) of touching, feeling and seeing? I will comparatively discuss how touching is situated, framed and realised and how embodied knowledge is mediated and objectified as a result. Finally, the possibilities and limits of a video-based research of sensory practices will be reflected.
While sports training aims at the communicative production of an embodied “special knowledge”, dementia diagnoses are concerned with the availability of everyday (embodied) knowledge and the examination of a cognitive and dementia changed status. The tactile “crossing” of body boundaries is essential in both cases. Although the tactile micro-practices of doctors and trainers may resemble each other, the communicative actions go hand in hand with culturally specific ways of understanding embodied constructions of meaning.
Diagrams of Bodily Inscription: Relational Spaces in the Sociological Description of Sport
1UCL, United Kingdom; 2University of Leicester, United Kingdom
With illustrations from the sport of fencing, this paper introduces a method for describing the partially non-discursive and tacit constitution of skill. Social Activity Method (Dowling, 2009) - an approach that involves the development of relational spaces - is presented as enabling a principled description of modes of social action within sporting activity. The paper follows Dowling’s (2014: 304) suggestion that the body be considered sociologically as a process of “developing inscription” emergent in the alliances that grant and receive its participation. This process of inscription can then be diagrammed in a rigorous way by making the social-semiotic principles of their construction explicit. The method is able to produce a finely textured account of sporting skill.
Fencing is a useful case study because it involves a great deal of play between the discursive and the non-discursive - disputes about ‘what happened’ in action are frequent. Empirical data is provided from television coverage of the 2012 Olympic Games, attempts by textbooks to convey the skills of the sport, and the presenting author’s experience as a fencing coach. A series of diagrams of inscription are presented: maps of the modes composing threat, sporting tempo and distance, balance, and the possibilities of experiment (including feints).
These enable a detailed account of some major shifts in skill necessitated by rule changes introduced under pressure from the IOC and the media. The paper therefore argues that an account of bodily inscription also has the potential to open up a sociology of sport more generally.
A Sociological Analysis of The Temporality of parkrun
University of Roehampton, United Kingdom
parkrun is a free, weekly, 5km timed running event taking place every Saturday morning 9am sharp across the UK and other countries. Over the past decade, parkrun events have attracted millions of participants, and the number of event locations has grown exponentially. The events and the organisers have gained huge media attention, including articles in the national newspapers, documentaries, TV news.
Existing studies have looked into why parkrun is so successful and how it engages with groups who are less likely to be active (e.g., Stevinson et al. 2015, Fullagar 2016, Whiltshire 2018). While existing research suggests key factors shaping the longevity of parkrun, more research is needed in order to understand the social meanings of collective sport activities (such as parkrun) in a neoliberal society.
The aim of this study is to use the sociological concept of ‘time’ and ‘temporality’ to understand the organisation of parkrun events and individual motivations. Based on my participant observation at various parkruns across the UK, I will discuss how time, a critical element in everything we do, plays a pivotal part in driving parkrun activities. Not only because all the events are time recorded, but also because of control and ownership and organisation of time. Analysing the participation and organisation of parkruns through the lenses of ‘time’ can provide not only deeper insights into individuals motivations, but also a richer description of what happens prior to, during, and after each parkrun. In other words, it helps us to gain a better understanding of the organisation of, the development of infrastructures of, the participation in parkruns.
The Methodological Gap: How to Apprehend Body and Embodiment in Sociology
Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
For several decades now, most sociological studies focusing on the body have been asserting the lacunas in the existing literature whereas confiding in the increasing interest for the topic to solve the issue. Different conceptualizations of the body will be presented here as well as and their contribution to qualitative methods in a sociology of body and embodiment.
The sociology of the body often keeps focused on the symbolical dimension of the body, as surface laden with social inscriptions (Le Breton 2015). However, calling on Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology (1945) has been an insightful lead in order to theorize the body as a social product but also as a subject that produces society, deeply enrooted in the individual and collective experience (Csordas 1990; Crossley 1995; Paterson and Hughes 1999; Ram and Houston 2015). Yet, most of those researches fail to describe a tangible sociological methodology, and remain evasive instead. The same critique applies to feminist theory, despite the insistence - also influenced by phenomenology - on the lived body and the specificity of the female experience (Grosz 1992, Dolezal 2010, Parkins 2000). Focusing on embodiment, several studies succeed in introducing astute processes to provide a privileged access to otherwise indescribable sensory experiences, whether involving the researcher as their own subject (Allen-Collinson 2011, Spatz 2017), whether using hybrid techniques and multiple substrates for interviews (Coe and Strachan 2002, Akinleye 2016).
This review reveals that, if body and embodiment seems to remain an unreachable matter, methodology is often its blind spot. Nevertheless, some results indicate the need for actively addressing this issue, and that the development of innovative methods is not only feasible but also to be encouraged.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||RN28_02: Sport as a social tool|
Session Chair: Alessandro Porrovecchio, University of the Littoral Opal Coast
Midnight-Football: The Rationalities and Technologies of Discipline in a Sports-Based Intervention in Suburban Sweden
Linköping University, Sweden
Following increased segregation and social exclusion in the suburban landscape of Sweden, social inclusion has become recurrently spotlighted as a central objective in social policy. Today, sports-based interventions have emerged as a common feature of social policy, often promoting social pedagogical objectives targeting youth in distressed urban areas. Based on interviews with representatives of two midnight-football interventions and on-site observations, this paper aims to explore the social pedagogical rationalities and technologies imbued and deployed in the intervention. Guided by a Foucauldian understanding of power, we outline two main technologies of discipline in the intervention, perceivably enabling social inclusion of urban youth. These technologies are underpinned and enabled by problematizations of the areas and the youth targeted, focusing on notions of risk. Youth are portrayed as subjected to the risks of the segregated society and simultaneously posing a risk to community – thus forming an object of intervention. First, technologies of control provide a structure of time and space, diverting youth from sites of risk and disorder as well as diverting will of and attention from delinquency. Second, technologies of hierarchical observation refer to how the activities are sites of participant and coach relations, where coaches observe, examine as well as role-model the conduct and discipline of youth. Together, these problematizations and technologies produce a specific conduct among the participating youth, facilitating social inclusion. The technologies and rationalities outlined are discussed in relation to contemporary notions of democracy and citizenship, inclusion and equality. Particularly with a focus on contemporary forms of youth social work in suburban Sweden.
Social Practice Theory as a Toolbox in Children’s Physical Activity Program
University of Tartu, Estonia
To identify and universalise intervention methods that fruitfully tackle complex public health challenges like insufficient physical activity (PA), a functional toolbox becomes crucial.
In the original intervention programme Schools in Motion that was launched in 2016 to tackle insufficient PA of Estonian children by changing the school culture, elements of social practice theory have been introduced to the schools.
Based on a case study of the programme, the paper suggests that concepts and models from social practice theory are at hand for detecting initial situation of a complex problem of insufficient PA during the school days, for intervening and for analysing the results of the intervention.
Using examples of initiating outdoor break times in participating schools, the presentation introduces (1) three-element-model of Shove et al (2005/2012) that maps and monitors the problematic social practice in focus; (2) practice change model of Vihalemm et al (2015) that helps to design trajectory of practice change; and (3) the notion of agency that successfully deals with involving key stakeholders and with potential resistance.
Relying on those concepts and models, a so-called practice-based approach can be formed that might function as a promising toolbox for dealing with various public health issues.
Refugees, Physical Activity and Sport. A Systematic Literature Review of Qualitative Research
TU Dortmund, Germany
Since 2011, the massive forced migration from the Middle East and North Africa into Europe has spurred discussions on refugees, which include their post-migration participation in sport. This paper systematically reviews recent literature based on qualitative research concerning refugees, physical activity and sport. Utilizing a search of major electronic databases, we identified 25 eligible sources on this topic. Basing on their discipline, content and aim, we separated them in two groups: a health sciences group (15), which is concerned with the physical, mental and social health of refugees and has leading health goals; and a sociology group (10), which has broader explorative goals and focuses on social interactions of refugees in and through sport. After describing their main features, this paper separately analyses topics specific and common to these two groups. The discussion explores similarities, differences and bridges between the two groups. This constitutes the basis to analyse critically the state of the art of qualitative research, identify research gaps and outline a future scientific agenda.
Sport and New Digital Communities
UNIVERSITY KORE OF ENNA
Sport has become an increasingly a phenomenon “Social”. The emerging sports practices highlight the interweaving of open-air running and the use of gaming apps for fitness. Open-air fitness lovers with Facebook, Twitter, Instagram (Appadurai 1990, 1996, Horne 2006, Sassatelli 2010) advertise weekly events to train together, experimenting with a more active approach to sport through the web. If training together is the motivating effect, the sharing on the social network of the athletic performance is the new trend. The objective of the research is to investigate the relationship that has been established between the use of social networks, the applications of digital fitness and open-air fitness, using Palermo Parkrun community as a discriminator. The research was conducted with a qualitative methodology. The field of research (Glaser and Strauss 1967, 2009) and the identification of the case study (Yin, 2014) made it possible to identify the usual runners of the Palermo circuit: Parco Uditore and Foro Italico, registered on Facebook and on the Parkrun website. A set of 60 indpth-interviews were conducted inside of the Palermo Parkrun community. The symbolic meanings (Geertz 1973) that are emerged from the indepht-interviews (Schwartz, Jacobs 1979) have allowed us to understand the universe of values thanks to the connections established between members and the use of social networks and their impact on sports, health and on the links built within the community.
Keywords: Parkrun, Body, Health, Social network, Community.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||RN28_03: Sports management and globalization|
Session Chair: Nico Bortoletto, University of Teramo - Italy
The Olympic City, Before and After: Analysing the Intangible Legacy of Hosting the Rio 2016 Summer Olympics
1Universidade Estácio de Sá (UNESA), Brazil; 2Centro de Pesquisa e Documentação de História Contemporânea do Brasil (CPDOC), Brazil
As cities engage in the Olympic candidature process, they also engage in the process of developing a new identity for themselves. This new identity – here named The Olympic gaze (Nogueira, 2017) – offers tourists as well as residents a fresh perspective from which to view and experiment the (host) city as a (new) locality. Drawing on Urry’s “tourist gaze” (Urry, 2001; Urry e Larsen, 2012), the Olympic gaze is here seen as being socially systematized, a result of several marketing and communications actions which, grounded mainly in urban and architectural changes, give the city its new Olympic shape and identity.
Based upon Rio 2016, this paper presents the preliminary results of a post-doctoral multidisciplinary research on the intangible legacy of hosting the Games, which aims to be a reflection on image transformations experienced by the host city, particularly in terms of tourism, marketing and business, as it becomes – even temporarily – a present-day “mythical Olympia” (Rubio, 2008).
To that end, the research comparatively analyses three communication pieces from three different moments that covers the process of hosting the Rio 2016 Olympic Games - the pre-Games period of the bidding, when the local government provides the IOC a bid promotional video; the opening of the Games, with special attention to the Opening Ceremony as a major communication and marketing piece; and the post-Games period, during which an evaluation of the media coverage on the Olympics’ legacy is performed one year after the Games.
UEFA and FIFA Top-list Referees: Homogeneity, Heterogeneity and Elite Group’s Boundaries.
Université d'Artois, URePSSS, Atelier SHERPAS, France
FIFA and UEFA elite referees passed hardships, stages and difficulties before entering the elite group. The refereeing committee spotted, recruited, selected, valued, sorted, promoted, elected and consecrated them. In a hypercompetitive system, they managed to enter a group at the highest level of prestige and remuneration scale (Charle, 2006). They lived experiences and career path with common characteristics. These elements help to make a clear distinction between the elite group and other “refs”. The first aim of this paper will be to analyze this common base of practices, experiences and values to draw the boundaries of the elite group.
This group seems homogeneous. However, when we analyzed pathways and referee’s careers, it reveals a strong internal heterogeneity. Although they are part of a common framework, “refs” carry different experiences. Generational effects and geographical spaces can explain differences between individuals. Previous pathways and the result of socialization lead “men of the middle” to invest differently their refereeing activity. At the heart of UEFA and FIFA elite group, internal boundaries and various issues can be uncovered. Indeed, officials have some flexibility to individualize their rapport to the refereeing world.
This paper is about a sociological survey, funded by the International Center for Sport Studies (CIES) and FIFA. This work based on 85 biographical interviews with retired and still active referees, and an ethnographic survey at the heart of the action, in two international tournaments, in the daily lives of referees. Beyond differences and similarities, we would like to discuss about the elite referees’ group boundaries. In other words: how can we define the elite group and officials who compose it?
Volunteering in Sport in Italy and EU. Some Empirical Evidences and Possible Future Scenarios
University of Teramo - Italy, Italy
Volunteerism is generally seen as one of the central elements of the contemporary democratic societies.
Volunteering in sport is something difficult to identify. Much athletes contribute with their unpaid work to the life of their organization, giving time, energy and ability. Much parents perform duties in sport organization in a very informal way and they seem to undervalue this type of involvement in terms of volunteer service recognition.
Sport organization are in Italy and in Europe the main employer of volunteers. In Italy, for instance, more than one million of volunteers operate within sport organizations (Istat 2011) with an increment of more than 80% during the first decade of this century and 83% of sport organizations uses volunteer work.
Our hypothesis is that this increment of volunteerism in Sport organization is linked partly to a progressive complexification of the normative aspects involving sport organization, even at the very first amatorial level.
In this work we will try to compare the evolution of the Italian voluntary sport sector with the European one, using Eurostat, Istat and Gesis database with Eurobarometer data.
We are expected to find on one hand the suggestion that volunteerism is a form for regaining personal meaning in a society that tends to expel the individual from the construction of social meanings, on the other hand to note that the growth of the phenomenon it’s linked to the bureaucratic increase of the sport organization necessities, especially in terms of fulfillment of (legal) obligations.
What Is the Bet About? The Betting Strategies and the (Sociological) Knowledge
Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poland
The betting industry has become the key actor at the sport consumption stage. The gambling companies have a great impact on the sport teams as a sponsors or advertisers; the bookmaker’s money fuels the professional leagues and the grassroots competitions. Besides, the large number of fans participate in the every-week (or even everyday) betting activities. All of these things make gambling on sport an important sociological phenomenon.
Most of the betting studies are focused on the relations between betting and social stratification, gender, consumption or addiction.
However, the betting can be analysed in terms of the sociology of knowledge. The bettors use the different types of knowledge to make a bet. They apply the expert’s tips, do the statistical analysis, listen the “Significant Others” or follow the hunch/ intuition. In this way the betting strategy is the indicator of some wider problems: the role of knowledge, the social complexity, the risk culture, the future forecasting.
The presentation is based on the quantitative research. It shows the key findings of the survey (N=400). The speech will try to answer on two main questions: (1) What are the betting strategies? (2) What is the social role of betting?
|6:00pm - 7:30pm||RN28_04: Sports, risk and health|
Session Chair: Lucie Forté, Toulouse 3
“I think it's cooler, when you achieve it all by yourself”: A Qualitative Investigation of Primary School Students' Constructions of Doping Use and Risks
University of Copenhagen, Denmark
The use of performance-enhancing drugs among athletes has been a concern for decades. In recent years anti-doping organizations, politicians and researchers have drawn attention to the use of doping in the general population, including the use among adolescents. Research have shown that a small but significant number of adolescents have tried performance enhancing drugs (Dunn & White, 2011; Sagoe, Andreassen, Molde, Torsheim, & Pallesen, 2015; Sandvik, Bakken, & Loland, 2018). However, it is still rather unexplored how young people in general relate to the issue of doping. This study investigates how non-using students in primary schools in Denmark construct doping use and doping users as well as perceived risks of use. 28 individual interviews and 7 focus-group interviews were carried out with 8th and 9th grade students (age 14-15) from three different Danish schools in order to gain insight into the students' social constructions of doping users, acceptable/unacceptable use and risk perceptions. The paper deploys notions of risk adopted from Lupton (1995) as well as Bengtsson and Ravn (2019) as a theoretical framework for the analysis, in order to understand how young people ascribe meaning to these issues. The paper will contribute to current knowledge about prevention of doping use among adolescents and provide an important qualitative insight into this research field, which is almost exclusively dominated by quantitative accounts as well as studies concerning current users.
Head Injuries In Swedish Ice Hockey And The Associated Risk Regulation Regime.
Mid Sweden university, Sweden
Due to the progressing knowledge regarding long-term health effects of head trauma in certain contact sports, the question of regulation is likely to be raised. In the case of Sweden, sporting activities are still part of a large civic movement mainly financed through public resources. Explicitly justified through claims of health promotion as well as alleged effects on social capital, the Swedish state and its municipalities spend a substantial amount of public resources in support of sports organizations each year. With numbers of active athletes as well as spectator numbers and public resources spent considered, ice hockey is arguably one of the biggest sports in Sweden. The legitimacy given to the sport through public funding and explicit recognition regarding positive societal effects is likely to be increasingly questioned due to the increasing amount of head injuries happening in the game as well as the aforementioned knowledge on the long term risks of such injuries. With this problem in mind, this PhD-thesis aims to advance the knowledge on the risk regulation regime associated with Swedish ice hockey through three empirical studies. First, a corpus assisted discourse study of the media narrative related to the specific risk. Second, a quantitative content analysis of the information communicated by the Swedish ice hockey association. Third, a network analysis intended to map the organizations involved in the regulation regime and the dynamics between them.
Risks, Drug Addiction And Social Inclusion In a Life-Course Perspective: An Ethnographic Study of Drug Users’ Participation In a Norwegian Street-Soccer Program Aimed At Rehabilitation
Nord University, Norway
This project is a part of my Ph.D. in sociology, and the objective is to study recovering drug users in Norway and their struggle to move on with their lives. I explore how participating in drug-intervention activities, like street-soccer, can help the drug users cope with addiction, strengthen non-addict identities, better their mental health and quality of life. Two overarching research questions have guided the process:
1) How do young people involved in drug rehabilitation describe and reflect on their ways into drugs and their struggle to move on with their lives?
2) What social processes are crucial for people with an addiction problem to break with drug abuse and over time become re-integrated into society?
Through an ethnographic approach, I have spent time in a street-soccer team managed by a non-profit organization, using participating observations and in-depth interviews to produce thick descriptions on the everyday lives of recovering drug users. The study makes use of a life-course perspective, focusing on the drug user’s own experiences with drug abuse and how activities like street-soccer over time might develop processes of social inclusion enabling them to become re-integrated in society.
Recovering from drug abuse, street-soccer is a vital arena to reduce risks of drug relapse, giving former drug users opportunities of social inclusion through interaction, forging networks, making friends and create positive growth through physical activity.
Sleep, Physical Activity and Beliefs. A socio-ecological approach based on the Universanté research
1University of the Littoral Opal Coast, URePSSS EA 7369 (Unité de Recherche Pluridisciplinaire Sport Santé Société), Dunkirk, France.; 2University of Lille, URePSSS EA 7369 (Unité de Recherche Pluridisciplinaire Sport Santé Société), Lille, France.; 3Dipartimento di Scienze umane, sociali e della Salute Università di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Italy
The interaction between sociology and the world of sleep has always been difficult and controversial. The activities of sleeping and dreaming have always been the prerogative of some specific disciplines as neurophysiology or psychology. Roger Bastide, who has always been attentive to the world of imagination and to the Other, writes in one of his books “for Sociology, interested only in the man awake, the sleeper might as well be dead [...] The question I have asked myself is whether the sociologist is right to ignore the other half of our life, to envisage man standing and sitting but never asleep and adream”. The recent studies of some sociologist, as Simon J. Williams and Bernard Lahire, started opening this perspective.
Starting from the idea that the interaction between sociology and sleep is complex and problematic, we hypothesize that we can analyse the interaction between sleep, physical activity, social inequalities and beliefs in a complete and comprehensive manner only if we base on a socio-ecological perspective. In this communication we will introduce and discuss the first results of the Universanté research, based on a panel of 700 university students of the Opal Coast area (France) focusing on the social-constructed beliefs and on the interaction between sleep, physical activity and social inequalities.
|Date: Thursday, 22/Aug/2019|
|11:00am - 12:30pm||RN28_05: Physical activity and health condition|
Session Chair: Enrico Michelini, TU Dortmund
Physical Activity in the Different Domains of Daily Life
Numerous studies on lifestyles in modern societies have shown that one of the main characteristics is the tendency to sedentary lifestyle. The most part of time is spent on the internet, watching television or doing other sedentary activities. This is worrying because of the negative repercussions to health; being physically active is essential for health and well-being and the benefits of physical activity are well-known. Recent data show that most part of people in Europe do not reach the minimum level of physical activity recommended by the WHO: only 30.8% of adult population engage at least 150 minutes of moderate physical activity in a week. In Italy only 18.3% of adults is active.
The aim of this work is to analyze active versus sedentary lifestyles in the different domains of daily life (leisure, work, housework). Data analyzed come from different surveys carried out by ISTAT from 1993 to 2017 (Aspects of daily life, EHIS, Time use; Citizens and leisure time).
Preliminary results show that on average in a day 34% of time is spent sleeping, 28% in sedentary behaviors and only 37% in physical activities. If we consider the different domains, 26% of adults is active exclusively at work/housework, while only the 17.5% is active in all the domains. Multivariate analysis were applied to estimate the risk of sedentary habits in the different domains, according to individual sociodemographic characteristics and other unhealthy behaviors. The results show that especially socioeconomic factors (level of education and economic resources) play an important role.
Relationship between sports and persistence among Higher Education students in Central and Eastern Europe
University of Debrecen, Hungary
Our presentation aims to reveal the interrelation between students’ doing sports and the subjective indicators of their persistence in their studies in Hungary’s Northern Plains region, and in Slovakia, Ukraine, Serbia and in Romania. The theoretical background for our research was constituted by the development model, as well as the institutional integrational model of Tinto (1975), Pascarella and Terenzini (1980). Persistence was measured through a nine-item inventory. We intended to find out how determined students were in connection with the completion of their studies, how useful they found their selected courses, and how committed they were in connection with meeting classroom and exam requirements. The database contains data regarding students in the region of Hungary that borders on five countries, as well as minority Hungarian students in the neighbouring countries (IESA 2015, N=2017).
Our results contradict the integrational model, as membership in a sports club reduces the persistence of the student concerned, regardless of the gender, country and the effects of the social background variables. Although the regressive analyses did not show the effects of doing some sport at sports clubs outside the campus, or doing sport at both place, the comparative analyses clearly show that students who do sport at sports clubs or associations outside the campus are at a distinct advantage in terms of their attitude to their studies. Students who are members in some sports club on and outside campus tend to express their commitment to their studies.
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy: Head Trauma and Sporting Subjectivity
University of Leeds, United Kingdom
‘Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy’ (CTE) is a form of neurodegenerative disease associated with head injuries and linked to a range of mood and motor disturbances. CTE most frequently results from sporting activity and there is growing concern about a ‘silent epidemic’ of dementias associated with the disease. Indeed, there are increasing demands for action to prevent CTE with rule changes proposed in a diverse range of sporting arenas.
In the wake of such debate, it has been argued that ‘CTE has transcended its status as a medical diagnosis and become a cultural phenomenon’ (Ventresca, 2018, p. 2). In this paper, I ask how CTE, as a ‘cultural phenomenon,’ has affected the way we render those who play sport and how we make sense of their actions. Utilizing discursive analysis, I examine the six long-form biographies of two NFL players who died by suicide and were posthumously diagnosed with CTE. I find that, first, CTE does indeed play a prominent role within these players’ biographies and is used to understand their behaviour – not only their suicides but also perceived changes in character and criminal acts of violence. Second, I find that these neurological discourses do not simply replace established narratives but rather diffract through longstanding discourses based around masculinity and race. I conclude that while CTE plays an increasingly prominent role in our understanding of sporting subjectivities, any straightforward notion of medicalization or neuro-reductionism in sport may well be misplaced.
Eudaimonic Happiness in the Biographies of Amateur Athletes
University of Warsaw, Poland
Happiness can be captured not only from the perspective of emotions, but also as an ethical category. As Julia Annas (Annas, 2004) notes, happiness, eudaimonia, is treated in philosophical reflection as an achievement - a desirable condition to be endeavor through a set of appropriate practices.
I would like to propose a look at biographies of amateur athletes through the prism of eudaimonia, happiness in the category of goal to achieve. Such an approach requires looking at life from a global perspective and making reflections on how the adopted life plans shape and organize its course.
I will present the proposal for this interpretation on the chosen case of an aspiring runner, striving to run her first marathon. The material subjected to analysis and interpretation was collected by a method of narrative biographical interview, allowing for a free, uncontrolled and spontaneous statement of the interviewee about the whole of her life. This technique summarizes current biography and as such is a good starting point for eudaimonic reflection.
The proposed approach may also contribute to a broader reflection on the role of amateur sport in the postmodern world. A reflection on the happiness in the category of goal to achieve and the resulting life plans allows for the interpretation of amateur sport as a tool to regain control and agency in a liquid, uncertain reality.
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||RN28_06: Identities in sports|
Session Chair: Przemyslaw Nosal, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan
“Better Than Men!”: A Feminist Research on Boxing
Giresun University, Turkey
Wacquant (2012), in the (auto-)ethnographic study, “Body and Soul” in a boxing club in Chicago, discussed the limitations and possibilities of being both a researcher and a boxer. The aim of the paper is to explore why and how gender operates (Krueger & SaintOnge, 2005) within bodily and emotional experiences of boxing vis-à-vis challenges of this “wo- (Heiskanen, 2012) manly (Wacquant, 2012) art” in the “masculine space” (Wacquant, 2012) of the gyms located in two cities, namely Istanbul and Giresun in Turkey. The study will revisit the sociology of sport and “masculinities” based on feminist studies on boxing and gender (Mennesson, 2000; Lafferty & McKay, 2004; Heiskanen, 2012; Paradis, 2012; Trimbur, 2013; Tjønndal, 2016; Nash, 2017). As an (auto-) ethnographic research, I will focus on this embodied process (Woodward, 2008; Nash, 2017) of research/practice of boxing fitness through challenges of being both a feminist researcher and a woman who enters the ring/field. Conducting semi-structured interviews, the study aims to explore different and changing meanings of boxing –based on “dualisms” (Woodward, 2008)- considering comparisons with “men”, which reproduce masculinities (Kimmel, 2005; Connell, 2016; Nash, 2017) and stereotypes about inclusion/exclusion of women.
Keywords: gender, bodily and emotional experiences of boxing, wo-manly art, (auto-)ethnography, Turkey
Jewish identity of football fans: a comparative study of Ajax Amsterdam and Tottenham London supporters.
Jagiellonian University, Poland
Football has become a very important tool in the process of social identity construction and maintenance. In many cases, a fan’s affiliation with a particular club represents the combination of a number of specific social, political and religious attributes. This phenomenon takes numerus local variations. In this paper I will analyse the cases of Tottenham London and Ajax Amsterdam supporters who refer to themselves as „Jews” and use various symbols and contents that are traditionally seen as Jewish, even if their clubs have never been Jewish organizations. The objective of this paper is to describe and explain the main characteristics of what I refer to as “Jewish identity” of the fans. It is an on-going project as part of which field research was performed in the autumn of 2017 and 2018 in London and Amsterdam. The research was based on sociological and anthropological qualitative methods, mainly in-depth interviews with the fans and participant observation in the stadiums during Tottenham and Ajax games. The analysis and interpretation of the collected research material will allow me to answer the questions of “how”, “why” and “what” happens in the stadiums (and outside of the stadiums) of those two teams in the context of the “Jewish identity” of their fans, and what kind of anti-Semitic content is used by the fans of their football opponents. Of key importance will be to explain the motivation the fans have for developing this specific identity.
Stigma, Health and Physically (In)active Bodies
La Trobe University, Australia
The focus of this presentation is the experiences of currently physically ‘inactive’ women and the micro-level, stigmatising processes that inhibit their engagement with, and experience of, physical activity. The research is situated at the nexus of physical activity, health promotion and associated exercise is medicine discourses. The current Australian government health agenda is strongly informed by neoliberal economic imperatives to reduce the burden of disease that ‘unhealthy’ lifestyles generate and the potential loss of productivity they cause. Consequently, individuals are urged to take up responsibility for their own conduct in line with cultural norms, market forces and advanced liberal governments. The framing of health in this way leads to a focus of resources on fostering individual behaviour change, rather than attempting to examine the socio-cultural determinants of health (and physical inactivity).
The research draws from recent reconceptualisations of stigma (e.g. Tyler and Slater, 2018), which focus on unpacking how stigma functions as a form of power. Women experience stigma in relation to their physically (in)active bodies in a variety of ways, which often operates as an inhibiting mechanism that forces disengagement from physical activity and negative emotional impacts. The research is significant for presenting and exploring women’s day-to-day contestations with physical inactivity, via the lens of stigma, to trace the wider socio-cultural processes that produce these experiences. This is a timely contribution to the growing body of literature that expresses the need to move away from individual health behaviour interventions (Holman, Lynch & Reeves, 2018) and to consider more fully the structured and contextual aspects of behaviour and health.
Football Fans And The Gentrification Of Stadiums: The Case Of Turkey
1Erzincan Binali Yıldırım University, Turkey; 2European University of Lefke, Northern Cyprus
As one of the various consequences of the spatial division of capital, gentrification is a relatively new process in Turkey. It has started in 1990s in megacity Istanbul and has become more visible since2000s. It must be noted that not only moving stadiums to the places far away from down town but also renovating of some are regarded as gentrification in this study. Also, classification of sports fans resulted from gentrification is remarkable. Sports club administrators who welcome new customers instead of fans of the past into their stadiums can be defined as symbols of the commercialisation of collective memories. Indeed, stadiums are collective memory places shaping the emotional and historical connections of the fans that Gentrification destroys this collective memory which has been accumulated for years and replaces them with new memories.
Study discusses the process and consequences of gentrification of stadiums through examination of two samples in Istanbul. Study intends to analyze the issue theoretically through descriptive analysis method; by using the newspapers, the content on the official web pages of football fan groups and football clubs and especially the chat pages of these web sites where fans can write their own ideas.
Then it concludes that both indoor and outdoor gentrification processes of stadiums built a new spatial barrier for fans that these barriers may have both been surpassed and led reactions among them in opposite directions against commercialisation of sports and destruction of stadiums’ collective memories time to time.
|4:00pm - 5:30pm||JS_RN13_RN35_07: Relatives at a distance: Interrelations and doing of migrants' families|
Session Chair: Kenneth Horvath, University of Lucerne
Doing Family Across Borders: Role of Routine Practices, Traditions and Feasts in Lithuania
1Mykolas Romeris University, Lithuania; 2Vilnius University, Lithuania
The research aim is to identify practices dedicated for strengthening family relationships, practices that are typical to the multi-local families with members across borders. The relevance of the topic is conditioned by the following factors: (a) diversity of family formation and daily life spread in the beginning of twenty first century encourage search for alternative family definitions and research methods; (b) theoretical approach on family practices and doing family suggests alternatives for the conceptualization of multi-local families; (c) lack of knowledge on family practices of multi-local families. Theoretical approaches of family practices (Morgan, 1996; 2011), doing family (Smart, 2007), family networks (Widmer, 2006; 2010; Jallinoja & Widmer, 2011) applied in the research.
Empirical analysis is based on two databases – data of representative quantitative survey and data of quota survey. Quantitative survey represent adult Lithuanian population. Persons with various migration experiences selected in quota surveys. Both surveys carried out in Lithuania between June-October, 2018 within the national research project “Global migration and Lithuanian family: family practices, circulation of care and return strategies”. Family practices like daily routine, traditions and feasts explored. The research results reveal that various family practices differently influence relationships among significant persons assigned as family members. Though, the same family practices effect differently relationships within networks’ of persons who have (direct or indirect) migration experience and who not. Finally, persons with migration experience have less common practices with Ego, though existing family practices are more intensive.
Keywords: family network; migrant families; family practices; doing family.
Familial Displays Across Borders: The Case of Lithuanian Parents-Children Living Separately
Vilnius university, Lithuania
The scripts of ‘good family’ denote structural organization and the ways family should be done. Building on the concept of ‘family display’, we focus on transnational families and examine how emigrants undergo the boundaries, which are set up by 'low mobility' discourse, and convey to their underage children and elderly parents that their actions constitute 'doing family things' and their relationships are 'family relationships' (Finch, 2007), regardless of the geographical distance.
We tested how the concept could be applied on the level of quantitative data analysis and draw insights from a survey carried out in Lithuania in 2018 using quota sampling (N=406), targeting families with children under 18 at the time of migration (mothers from mother-away families; fathers from father-away families; parents from both parents-away families) and adult children abroad with elderly parents in need of care in Lithuania. Data analysis focuses on three areas that provide answers to questions how mothers/fathers’, daughters/sons’ and designated carers’ displays are done; what methods are used and how often it is done?
Research findings reveal gendered ways of familial displays. With regard to mothers/fathers’ displays, research findings disclose different parenting strategies. With regard to daughters/sons’ displays, gender differences are observed in the ways care responsibilities are delegated and overseen. The authors offer the way to understand how migration induced structural changes highlight designated carers as significant persons in doing and displaying family. The paper contributes to migration and transnational family studies by expanding understanding how family display is enacted in different child-care/elderly-care familial arrangements.
Closeness Despite Distance? Parent-Child Relationships in Europe
University of Zurich, Switzerland
Intergenerational cohesion and support across the whole life course are important characteristics of parent-child relationships. Next to financial support, care and help or support of grandchildren, contacts between parents and their children are an important form of intergenerational solidarity in contemporary societies. Traditionally, different kinds of contacts as well as their frequency strongly depend on geographic proximity. Therefore, increased spatial mobility may reduce (opportunities for) intergenerational solidarity. However, nowadays families might be able to face the challenge of greater geographical distances and time restrictions by employing various new communication technologies.
Although contacts between parents and their offspring are not only relevant for the individuals themselves but also for society in general, little is yet known about the determinants and country-specific differences in general and the situation for multi-local families in particular. Due to the relevance of intergenerational contacts as an important precondition for many other forms of solidarity, the presentation addresses the impact of geographic distance on contact frequencies in an international perspective.
The empirical multilevel analyses are based on pooled data of the fifth and sixth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) including 19 countries. The research questions are: (1) How intense are parent-child contacts in general, and (2) how do they vary by country and geographic distance? (3) Which impact has the usage of modern communication technologies on maintaining intergenerational contacts, and (4) which further micro-, meso- and macro-structural determinants are relevant for more or less intense intergenerational contacts in European families?
Questions of Belonging across Borders: Continuity and Change in Transnational Family Memories
University of Zurich, Switzerland
The focus of this contribution lies on family memories of transnational families and on the question of the significance of these memories for the conceptualization of the family as a unity. Family memories can be conceived both as family practices as well as part of family biographies. In this context questions of belonging interfere with questions of preserving continuity and opening up to change. Thereby, languages form an important basis for family memory and processes of communitarisation that have to be overcome after arriving in a new environment (Purkarthofer 2017). Different dimensions of continuity and change in questions of belonging in transnational families will be shown as key results on the basis of qualitative analysis.
In the project that forms the basis of this contribution, familial practices of narrating and remembering are observed, following the question how practices of memorisation become important for forms of communitarisation in families with migration histories. In addition to participant observations, family biographies are collected through family interviews with family members of different generations.
Theoretically, the project is following conceptualisations of remembrance work (Inowlocki 2003) and remembering as social practice (Rosenthal 2010), as well as remembering as a form of communicative communitarisation (Keppler 1994). Methodologically, it takes a reconstructive perspective that takes situative logics into account as well as the biographical processing of situative experiences. From this perspective, ethnographical and biographical approaches can benefit from one another (Dausien/Kelle 2005; Schnitzer 2017).
|6:00pm - 7:30pm||RN28_08: Gender and football|
Session Chair: Alessandro Porrovecchio, University of the Littoral Opal Coast
How Do Women Perform Their Roles as Women and Fans in the Stands? The Similarities and Differences Between Various Sectors of Football Stadiums
1Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland; 2Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Poland; 3University of Gdańsk, Poland
The aim of this presentation is to reveal the female fans’ performances on football stadiums by answering the following questions: (1) How do women perform their roles in the stands? (2) Do they construct their own scripts about being a fan and (3) Can one observe identity conflicts between being a fan and being a woman? As the theoretical framework for the analysis, the concept of ‘Performative Sport Fandom’ (Osborne, Coombs 2013) will be used.
Although female supporters’ behaviours have already been analysed by several authors (e.g. Stacey Pope and Carrie Dunn in the UK; Gertrud Pfister, Svenja Minter and Verena Lenneis in Denmark), they have been usually focused on one type of fans. Our approach takes into account the presence of female supporters in various sections of football stadiums—those for VIP, regular fans and staunch supporters. By exploring the various parts of the stadium separately, we investigate different segments of the fans’ population. We assume that female fans might be driven to different parts of the stadium (‘sub-worlds’ of fandom community) by various motivations, their experience of fans’ attitudes and behaviour can be distinctively different.
The presentation is based on a research project ‘Women entering the male-dominated world of football fans: causes, course and consequences’ financed by the National Science Centre (2016/21/B/HS6/00846).
Gender And Football: A New Age For Media Coverage of Women's Sport And Future Research Agendas
Durham University, United Kingdom
This paper examines English print media coverage of the England national women’s soccer (football) team during the 2015 FIFA Women’s World Cup. It draws theoretically upon Connell’s ‘gender order’, along with feminist thinking, building upon and extending existing studies on gender, media and sport. The methods draw on a quantitative and qualitative analysis of five English national newspapers from 24 May to 14 August 2015. Findings examine three main themes: the amount of coverage of the 2015 FIFA Women’s World Cup; task relevant themes (including skill of the players/team and comparisons to men’s football) and task irrelevant themes (including personal life and gendered hierarchy of naming and infantilization). A wide body of research has demonstrated that women’s sport is greatly underrepresented in the media and where such coverage does occur, a number of techniques are used to devalue their sporting achievements. But these findings are important as they demonstrate that during this tournament, women’s soccer received a significant amount of print media coverage and that this coverage was largely positive. We argue that we have entered a new age of media coverage of women’s sport in the UK, with a shift towards greater gender equality in sports media coverage.
I move on to consider future research agendas by overviewing further research in the area of gender and sport connected to my current AHRC funded project.
|7:30pm - 8:30pm||RN28_BM: RN28 Business Meeting|
Session Chair: Honorata Jakubowska, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland
Session Chair: Alessandro Porrovecchio, University of the Littoral Opal Coast
|Date: Friday, 23/Aug/2019|
|11:00am - 12:30pm||JS_RN13_RN35_09: Relatives at a distance: Understandings of family in post-migration constellations|
Session Chair: Detlev Lück, Federal Institute for Population Research (BiB)
To Search Or Not To Search? Finnish Transnational Adoptees’ Deliberations On Searching For First Parents
University of Jyväskylä, Finland
”To search or not to search” for first parent(s) is probably one of the most emotional and personal decisions that an adopted individual has to make. Although ties between the adopted child and his or her first parents are not valid before the law, previous research shows quite clearly that both adoptees and their first parent(s) are often interested in each other’s. Nevertheless, this interest does not always turn into pursuing actual search. In this presentation, I ask how do transnational adoptees come into the decision to search or not to search.
The data used for this presentation consists of 24 semi-structured interviews conducted with adult-age transnational adoptees during 2009-2010. Choice to concentrate on adult-age adoptees is a methodological choice that sees meanings of origin as temporarily changing, but also an ethical choice with which I take part in a paradigm in adoption studies that tries to grasp some of the “long-term impacts” of adoption. Interviewed adoptees were born in nine different countries of origin, the most common being Russia, Ethiopia, Colombia and India.
Theoretically, I follow Margaret Archer’s (1995; 2012) critical realist theory of agency and internal conversation in analyzing adoptees’ decision-making about searching. According to Archer, agency and actions are constrained and enabled by structures, and structures have the ability to influence on person’s motivations to act. Results will be discussed in relation to Archer’s understanding of modes of reflexivity: communicative reflexives, autonomous reflexives, meta-reflexives and fractured reflexives. Results will bring forward the complex nature of decision making process concerning searching first parents.
A Comparison of Couples' Living Arrangements between Migrants and Non-Migrants in Germany
1University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany; 2University of Mannheim, Germany
A large body of literature has addressed ethnic disparities with respect to education, labor market, health, and family outcomes in the last decades. However, we know only little about young migrants’ partnership status, i.e. in how far they differ from non-migrants with respect to having a living-apart-together relationship (LAT), living in cohabitation or being married. Understanding the partnership behavior of migrants is important because it allows us to assess one dimension of social integration. This is particularly interesting in Germany, were more than 20 percent of the resident population are immigrants or the descendants of immigrants.
In this paper, we compare the partnership living arrangements of migrants (N=3,005) and non-migrants (N=9,018) living in Germany. Our analysis distinguishes between different clusters of origin countries (Eastern Europe, Southern Europe, African Countries), a differentiation that is often used in integration research.
We draw on data from the first wave of the German Family Panel pairfam, which was surveyed in the years 2008 and 2009. The data contain information on partnership status and migration background of women and men of the birth cohorts 1981-83 and 1971-73. In our multinomial regression analysis, we focus on explanatory variables such as migrant generation, educational attainment, labor force participation, and religion.
Descriptive findings show that especially marriage is more common among migrants than among non-migrants. Preliminary results of our multiple regression analysis controlling for socioeconomic and cultural variables suggest a less clear pattern of differences between the diverse subgroups of our sample.
Keywords: Living arrangements, Migrants, Integration research, Acculturation
A Longitudinal Analysis of Psychological Well-being of Ghanaian Children in Transnational Families
University Maastricht, Netherlands, The
Most of what is known about how migration impacts the health and well-being of migrants and their children comes from studies focusing on migrant families that live together in a host country. Yet since the 2000s, qualitative transnational family studies have highlighted the existence of migrant families that live apart while still operating as families. These studies have mainly documented that having parents abroad negatively affect children’s education, behavior, physical health, mental health and emotional well-being. Yet most of the research on transnational families has been qualitative and small-scale, making it difficult to determine whether separation in itself is driving the results or whether it is certain characteristics of the transnational family.
Recently, large-scale studies, using cross-sectional data have indicated that characteristics of the transnational family arrangement determine how the child fares. This study is one of the first to employ panel data, to investigate changes in psychological well-being over time allowing a closer analysis of what factors can best explain changes in well-being status, such as reunification or caregiver changes. It will investigate different forms of transnational care arrangements paying attention to who the caregiver is, the gender of the parent who migrates and the location of migration. In short, we want to improve the analysis of transnational families by paying due attention to the diversity of arrangements and how these change over time. The study analyzes data collected in three waves in 2013, 2014 and 2015 in Ghana amongst secondary school students between the ages of 12 to 21 (N=741). It measures the psychological well-being of adolescents using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ).
|2:00pm - 3:30pm||JS_RN13_RN35_10: Relatives at a distance: Doing family in current migration regimes|
Session Chair: Vida Česnuitytė, Mykolas Romeris University & Vilnius University
Family Migration Practices Of Refugees In Germany: The Timing Of Spouses’ And Children’s Migration
Federal Institute for Population Research, Germany
Although the numbers of forcibly displaced persons worldwide has increased substantially over the last years, studies on refugee populations in European destination countries are still sparse, especially concerning transnational family arrangements and family reunification practices. This paper aims to fill this gap by examining the process of family migration and reunification practices among male and female refugees who recently arrived in Germany from Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria. Using data from the first two waves of the Refugee Sample of the German Socio-Economic Panel (IAB-BAMF-SOEP) and applying descriptive statistics as well as logistic regression models, we disentangle the heterogeneity of refugee families’ migration processes. Specifically, we analyse different types of family migration trajectories (joint versus independent versus family stage migration) and the probability of reunification with the left-behind partner and/or children in the destination country and to what extent this is shaped by socio-economic conditions, family networks and the legal situation of the first mover. Preliminary results on spousal migration behaviour reveal that the husband’s educational attainment and financial situation in the origin country determine whether couples arrive together at the destination. Moreover, solo migration is associated with the presence of other extended family members at the destination. We conclude that conventional theories for explaining economically motivated migration decisions and outcomes have to be adapted to the context of forced migration, and that further research is needed on the gender-specific characteristics of refugees.
Who Counts as “Unaccompanied”? The Making up of Family Relations in the Context of Migration Management in Germany
Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Germany
This presentation explores the social construction of family relations in the context of migration management based on qualitative interviews with social workers in youth welfare service in Germany. Large numbers of Unaccompanied Refugee Minors (URM) have been resettled in Germany and taken into care. As the interviews show, not only do case workers try to identify who counts as unaccompanied, they make family relations count through their assessments. In my paper I assume that minors who end up being classified as travelling “alone” are a social construction, interlinked with the migration regime, where identities are questionable and a specific doing family can be considered.
This leads to the central aim of this paper: How do professional case workers proof and evaluate family relations? When and how do family relations become questionable and when do they count? And most important, how “is family done” during the assessments?
The empirical examination of taking unaccompanied minors into care clarifies that companions have to be ignored or made relevant by the case workers. The main finding suggests that family relations are not taken for granted, they have to be verified. Case workers reach out for reliable documents to investigate family relations, guardianships and parents in the distance, while the lack of legal documentation leads to them being questioned. That means family members are documented family members. To do family, case workers use the differentiation between documented and undocumented people created by legal boundaries and border crossing, reproducing a migration regime in which undocumented migrants’ access to rights and belonging is limited.
The International Migration of Couples: Timing – Motives – Outcomes
University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany
Migration of couples should be understood as a product of bilateral negotiations between the two partners rather than an effect of individual decisions. Against this background, the paper investigates in the timing, motives and outcomes of international migration of couples. Based on data from the first two waves of the new and unique German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS) the paper tries to answer the following questions: Are there differences between male and female partners in the timing of migration? How do different migration motives correlate with gender and education? How does partnership quality develop in the very first month after migration? How do childless couples and parents differ with regard to these parameters? GERPS will provide information on approximately 4.000 couples from which at least one spouse has recently emigrated from Germany to any other country or has recently re-migrated to Germany. The results will contribute to the ongoing debate about tied movers and family related inequalities of migration. Since most research deals with internal migration, we add new evidence on these topics by investigating in international migration. Moreover, whereas much of the previous literature on international family migration has focused on migration from less gender-egalitarian and economically less developed countries, our study uses data from Germany, where livings standards and gender equality within couples are – by global standards – relatively high.
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