Relationships Between Spanish Industrial SMEs And Vocational Education Centres
University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Spain
In the Spanish vocational education system context, relationships between education and industry have not been widely studied. This paper aims at analysing the intensity of relationships between industrial SMEs and vocational education and training (VET) centres from the firms’ perspective. The study is based on a survey carried out to a sample of 1,388 Spanish industrial SMEs which had vocational education graduates among their employees. The study belongs to a wider project about VET-level workers’ participation in innovation, which was conceptualised as interactive learning processes involving social relationships both internal and external to the firm.
Multivariate hierarchical segmentation techniques have been used in order to identify the main explanatory variables. As a result, a typology (‘tree’) of eight organisational profiles has been obtained which are associated to different intensity levels (from higher to lower) of relationships between firms and educational centres.
The results obtained show many significant interactions between explanatory variables. The main characteristic which explains and classifies relationship levels is “experience of cooperation in innovation activities”, which can be seen as related to SMEs’ innovative culture. Another explanatory variable related to firms’ culture which has discriminant effects is VET workers’ participation in innovation activities. On the other hand, more ‘structural’ characteristics (so to speak) such as VET graduate presence (VET personnel in technical jobs and proportion of higher level VET workers), as well as firms’ basic characteristics such as size and sector, also contribute to the typology. The organisational profile having the highest level of relationships with education and training centres refers to SME’s with cooperation experience which have VET workers in technical jobs and which are bigger in size.
Europe and Beyond: Professional Trajectories From The Army To International Organizations
1Military Academy, Portugal; 2Universidade de Évora, Portugal; 3CINAMIL; 4CICS.NOVA; 5Universidade Europeia
Despite being a small country, Portugal actively participates in international security policies and in the last few years the Portuguese soldiers were involved in the most prominent military operations and crisis management missions (under the umbrella of the UN, NATO, and the EU). The budgetary constraints after the financial crisis of 2011 affected the commitment; even so over 36,000 troops participated in peace missions in over 30 different theatres of operations, covering all the world continents (Arena, 2017). The new generation of Peace Support Operations, include conflict prevention, peacemaking, peacebuilding, peacekeeping, peace enforcement and humanitarian operations. This huge challenge engages mainly military personnel (with multiple and flexible capabilities), but also a large composition of civilian actors, such as police forces, NGO’s and members of multiple agencies. The participating in those scenarios opens possibilities for multinational civil-military cooperation which defies traditional boundaries. We will analyze professional trajectories of Portuguese military that after participating on peace missions are presently engage in civilian international organizations, still contributing to global security activities, under different roles and statutes. Based on deep interviews applied to ex-military, we will follow professional and personal trajectories, first in the military career then in civilian life. Special attention will be given to understand how previous military experience (education and profession) enable and facilitates the integration into international organizations and the commitment to human security.
Keywords: Portuguese Army, Professional Trajectories, Peace Support Operations, International Organizations.
Cultural Differences in Worktime Flexibility: A Comparison between Northern and Southern European Countries
1University of Sussex, United Kingdom; 2Universidad de Málaga, Spain
The objective of this research is to analyse the relationship between the organisation of work schedules and labour productivity, identifying different organizational models according to national cultures and institutional models developed by each country. In particular, the study focuses on the case of Southern European countries, assuming that a low diffusion of flexible work schedules could contribute to explain their lower productivity of labour. Our hypothesis is about the existence of cultural factors explaining the higher rigidity of work schedules in Southern Europe. We analyse data from the fifth and sixth waves of the European Survey on Working Conditions (EWCS 2010; 2015) using logistic regression techniques. Findings show that workers in Northern European countries (most productive) are also characterised by a greater degree of flexibility in their working hours. This correlation between working in Northern countries and time flexibility is robust to several control variables, like sector, occupation, gender, age, etc. In conclusion, the national context seems to influence worktime flexibility and, therefore, labour productivity, beyond sectoral, organisational and socio-demographic factors.
Being Employed is no longer Enough? Labour Participation and Poverty Risks in Southern Europe
University of Oviedo, Spain
The economic recession in Southern Europe has revitalized the debate on the specificity of this welfare capitalism mode. These countries have shared the highest levels of job destruction and the strongest tendencies of increasing income inequality. The analysis of poverty risks related to employment can enrich the debate exploring two basic dimensiones of these welfare states: the inequalities in labour market participation and the redistributive and protective effect of monetary social benefits targeted to working-age population.
Southern Countries have been typified as a set of very similar countries, instead of comparing similarities and differences among them in a systematic way. In addition, this research usually presents two limitations: first, it deals only with the risk of poverty of workers, paying little attention to the risk of poverty of self-employed and non-employed; second, cross-sectional analyses predominate; little is known about whether those risks are mobile, recurrent or persistent.
This article aims to analyse, using EU-SILC data, the risks of poverty related to employment in Southern European countries (Spain, Greece, Italy and Portugal) and their transformations during the most recent stages of economic recession and initial recovery (2009-2016). First, the at-risk of poverty is analysed for the entire working-age population: employed, self-employed, and unemployed; as well as its profiles and determinants. Second, the longitudinal component of poverty is examined looking at the different levels of mobility, recurrence and persistence, and to the factors that explain the chronification of poverty.