The Olympic City, Before and After: Analysing the Intangible Legacy of Hosting the Rio 2016 Summer Olympics
1Universidade Estácio de Sá (UNESA), Brazil; 2Centro de Pesquisa e Documentação de História Contemporânea do Brasil (CPDOC), Brazil
As cities engage in the Olympic candidature process, they also engage in the process of developing a new identity for themselves. This new identity – here named The Olympic gaze (Nogueira, 2017) – offers tourists as well as residents a fresh perspective from which to view and experiment the (host) city as a (new) locality. Drawing on Urry’s “tourist gaze” (Urry, 2001; Urry e Larsen, 2012), the Olympic gaze is here seen as being socially systematized, a result of several marketing and communications actions which, grounded mainly in urban and architectural changes, give the city its new Olympic shape and identity.
Based upon Rio 2016, this paper presents the preliminary results of a post-doctoral multidisciplinary research on the intangible legacy of hosting the Games, which aims to be a reflection on image transformations experienced by the host city, particularly in terms of tourism, marketing and business, as it becomes – even temporarily – a present-day “mythical Olympia” (Rubio, 2008).
To that end, the research comparatively analyses three communication pieces from three different moments that covers the process of hosting the Rio 2016 Olympic Games - the pre-Games period of the bidding, when the local government provides the IOC a bid promotional video; the opening of the Games, with special attention to the Opening Ceremony as a major communication and marketing piece; and the post-Games period, during which an evaluation of the media coverage on the Olympics’ legacy is performed one year after the Games.
UEFA and FIFA Top-list Referees: Homogeneity, Heterogeneity and Elite Group’s Boundaries.
Université d'Artois, URePSSS, Atelier SHERPAS, France
FIFA and UEFA elite referees passed hardships, stages and difficulties before entering the elite group. The refereeing committee spotted, recruited, selected, valued, sorted, promoted, elected and consecrated them. In a hypercompetitive system, they managed to enter a group at the highest level of prestige and remuneration scale (Charle, 2006). They lived experiences and career path with common characteristics. These elements help to make a clear distinction between the elite group and other “refs”. The first aim of this paper will be to analyze this common base of practices, experiences and values to draw the boundaries of the elite group.
This group seems homogeneous. However, when we analyzed pathways and referee’s careers, it reveals a strong internal heterogeneity. Although they are part of a common framework, “refs” carry different experiences. Generational effects and geographical spaces can explain differences between individuals. Previous pathways and the result of socialization lead “men of the middle” to invest differently their refereeing activity. At the heart of UEFA and FIFA elite group, internal boundaries and various issues can be uncovered. Indeed, officials have some flexibility to individualize their rapport to the refereeing world.
This paper is about a sociological survey, funded by the International Center for Sport Studies (CIES) and FIFA. This work based on 85 biographical interviews with retired and still active referees, and an ethnographic survey at the heart of the action, in two international tournaments, in the daily lives of referees. Beyond differences and similarities, we would like to discuss about the elite referees’ group boundaries. In other words: how can we define the elite group and officials who compose it?
Volunteering in Sport in Italy and EU. Some Empirical Evidences and Possible Future Scenarios
University of Teramo - Italy, Italy
Volunteerism is generally seen as one of the central elements of the contemporary democratic societies.
Volunteering in sport is something difficult to identify. Much athletes contribute with their unpaid work to the life of their organization, giving time, energy and ability. Much parents perform duties in sport organization in a very informal way and they seem to undervalue this type of involvement in terms of volunteer service recognition.
Sport organization are in Italy and in Europe the main employer of volunteers. In Italy, for instance, more than one million of volunteers operate within sport organizations (Istat 2011) with an increment of more than 80% during the first decade of this century and 83% of sport organizations uses volunteer work.
Our hypothesis is that this increment of volunteerism in Sport organization is linked partly to a progressive complexification of the normative aspects involving sport organization, even at the very first amatorial level.
In this work we will try to compare the evolution of the Italian voluntary sport sector with the European one, using Eurostat, Istat and Gesis database with Eurobarometer data.
We are expected to find on one hand the suggestion that volunteerism is a form for regaining personal meaning in a society that tends to expel the individual from the construction of social meanings, on the other hand to note that the growth of the phenomenon it’s linked to the bureaucratic increase of the sport organization necessities, especially in terms of fulfillment of (legal) obligations.
What Is the Bet About? The Betting Strategies and the (Sociological) Knowledge
Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poland
The betting industry has become the key actor at the sport consumption stage. The gambling companies have a great impact on the sport teams as a sponsors or advertisers; the bookmaker’s money fuels the professional leagues and the grassroots competitions. Besides, the large number of fans participate in the every-week (or even everyday) betting activities. All of these things make gambling on sport an important sociological phenomenon.
Most of the betting studies are focused on the relations between betting and social stratification, gender, consumption or addiction.
However, the betting can be analysed in terms of the sociology of knowledge. The bettors use the different types of knowledge to make a bet. They apply the expert’s tips, do the statistical analysis, listen the “Significant Others” or follow the hunch/ intuition. In this way the betting strategy is the indicator of some wider problems: the role of knowledge, the social complexity, the risk culture, the future forecasting.
The presentation is based on the quantitative research. It shows the key findings of the survey (N=400). The speech will try to answer on two main questions: (1) What are the betting strategies? (2) What is the social role of betting?