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Session Overview
RN33_01a: Gender and Resource Management: Households, Negotiations and Strategies
Wednesday, 21/Aug/2019:
11:00am - 12:30pm

Session Chair: Adéla Souralová, Masaryk University
Location: BS.3.14
Manchester Metropolitan University Building: Business School, Third Floor, North Atrium Oxford Road

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Employment Guarantee Schemes: Their Role in Marital Negotiation of Work in India and Bangladesh

Wendy Kay Olsen

University of Manchester, United Kingdom

In north central rural India and rural Bangladesh, we find women both trapped at home and subject to the strong pattern of male circular migration. 15% of women are head of household (2015/6 field surveys). Breaking down patterns of government “100 days” employment guarantee at local level we find both village-wise and class-wise patterns. The talk explores the patterns using semi-structured interviews (2015/6) and multilevel modelling. First we found women of higher class not utilising the employment guarantee; on the other hand, those with access to cash could afford the bribe needed to enter the scheme. Applying gender-and-development theory we offer a nuanced class approach at the household level to distinguish which women in each country obtained the advantages of “100 days” or cash-for-work employment guarantee. Second we found women and men sharing in strategies of work and task management. Tragic poverty situations were associated with ill health and outmigration, as well as widowhood and the migration of the next generation on a more permanent basis to towns. Lastly, we discuss the different gender dynamics in predominantly Muslim Bangladesh and predominantly Hindu north central India. Our treatment of discourse differences allows us to gauge the role of social norms, social change, and two contradictory pressures. On the one hand: be modern. On the other: be conservative and hence trustworthy. Women deal with these pressures in many ways. We explore discourses used by both men and women for dealing with these norm conflicts over work allocation. Women’s paid work is very important both at symbolic and discursive levels, and economically.

Gender Differences in Reported Relationship between Spouses’ Housework Hours and Relative Income

Joanna Syrda

University of Bath, United Kingdom

Conceptions of gender may shape not just actions, but perceptions and reporting. This article takes a new approach to housework and gender by examining differences between males and females in how they respond to survey questions about both, own and spouse’s housework, in the context of wife’s relative income. Fixed effects regression results using 1999-2015 waves of the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics dataset (n=6,229) show a significant asymmetric effect of gender norms on the spouses’ reporting behavior. When wives are earning relatively higher income, thereby deviating from the gender norm, husbands report lower own housework hours and higher housework hours on wife’s behalf. This is consistent with gender deviance neutralization (and/or masculine overcompensation) theory. However, when wives report spouses’ housework hours, the relationship follows the bargaining-exchange model. Identified clear gender differences in reported relationship between housework and relative income are interesting in themselves and have practical research implications, including possibly explaining conflicting empirical results found in previous research. Plausibly, the mixed findings stem from the changing composition of female and male respondents. Results presented in this study suggest that housework data is profoundly affected by gender differences in reporting and this is not a simple linear bias.

Household Time-Use Or Individuals Characteristics To Increase Women´s Participation? Evidence From Colombia

Michelle Camile Vernot López

University of Barcelona, Spain

This article seeks to clarify the complex relationship between the distribution of time within the home, socio-psychological individual factors and crucial outcomes for women: participation in the labour market and their construction of social bridges. The literature on the determinants of the gender gap in terms of social and labour participation is rather extended and continues to be part of the current debate on gender inequality and unpaid domestic work. Like other developing countries and in conformity with international institutions´ goals, Colombia has implemented different strategies to overcome this burden. However, women still participate less in the labour market and are less likely to socialize themselves outside their household. Using Colombian National Survey of Time Use (ENUT-2016/2017), we provide empirical support to show that the distribution of time between couples acts as a mediator between individual factors, both objective (type of union) and subjective (perception of gender roles), and the two defined outcomes for women. Our empirical strategy uses an original mediation model supported by specific logistic regressions. From the perspective of public policy, our results demonstrate that women´s social and labour participation must be analysed under the prism of individual and collective dimensions. The orientation of public policies could be adjusted since it would be evident that Colombian policies focused exclusively on women´s individual characteristics must necessarily be reinforced by actions that also take into account the distribution of time and ultimately, the household as the intervention unit.

Money Management and Gender Equality: An Analysis of Dual-Earner Couples in Western Europe

Cemile Beyda Cineli

Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain

Using data from ISSP “Family and Changing Gender Roles” 2012 module, we do a cross-sectional analysis in order to examine the dynamics behind the non-traditional money management systems (joint and individualized money management) used by 25-45 age group dual-earner couples. We explore whether the changing patterns of employment and changing ideologies and discourses of gender have resulted in more egalitarian ways of handling money among couples in intimate relationships. The novelty of this paper lies in taking into consideration both the joint and the individualized system which is relatively less explored and covering both married and cohabiting couples. Although gender inequalities persist in joint and individualized systems, both are more egalitarian than the traditional breadwinner system where only one partner –usually male –manages all the household income. Individualized system -which is a rather newer way of managing money for couples-is more associated with gender egalitarian values; it is preferred significantly more by respondents who express relatively more egalitarian ideologies of gender and, finally, in relationships where males are older or earn significantly more money than their partners, the likelihood of switching to non-traditional systems (joint / individualized) is lower.

Keywords: Gender Inequalities, Intimate Relationships, Household Economics, Family Sociology, Gender Arrangements

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