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Session Chair: Peeter Vihalemm, University of Tartu
Location:GM.304 Manchester Metropolitan University
Building: Geoffrey Manton, Third Floor
4 Rosamond Street West
Off Oxford Road
Countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States: Striving Together or Falling Apart?
Daria Maltseva, Rustam Kamalov
National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation
The relations between countries can be considered as a network, where the countries are nodes and the thickness of links is the indicator of their attraction or repulsion. In our project, we consider the relations between countries-members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The data is taken from the project “Integration Barometer”, implemented by the Eurasian Development Bank Centre for Integration Studies in partnership with the International Research Agency Eurasian Monitor. Since 2012, six waves of measurements of the public mood in the post-Soviet space were conducted. The amount of countries varies from 12 (2013) to 7 (2017). Each year in each country at least 1,000 people were included into representative national samples.
The questionnaire contains questions about people`s integration preferences in different spheres of life – social, economic and political. Respondents were asked about the countries from the CIS where they have close contacts (relatives, friends), would like to travel, send their children to study, or migrate; which country they think their country should have trade relations with, which one would support their country in political sense, etc. Using methodology of social network analysis, we construct set of networks out of these data, and compute various metrics for individual nodes (countries) and whole network structures. Identifying the most central nodes and most connected subgroups of networks, we make conclusions on whether the countries of the CIS are currently striving together or falling apart. The data of different waves help us to trace the dynamics of attraction and repulsion changing.
Visual Representations of Polish-German Border After 2007
Przemysław Rura, Łukasz Rogowski
Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland
In project „De-Re-Bord. Socio-spatial transformations in German-Polish interstices. Practices of debordering and rebordering” (implemented in the framework of the Polish-German NCN-DFG Beethoven 2 programme), we aim to research Polish-German border and to reconstruct spatial discourses and the knowledge systems they imply, as well as actual practices of residents. Particular attention is paid to material and visual manifestations of the border.
We implement in the project multidimensional research design, which is based mainly on qualitative research techniques. However in our presentation we will refer to quantitative analysis— visual content analysis method— of visual representations of the border. This is a part of wider analysis of public discourses, which research how different media discursively construct border regions over time.
In our presentation we will refer to three issues: 1) Sampling strategy, including data from social media, local archives and newspapers. We will show what are the advantages and disadvantages of using different data types to analyze border representations; 2) Code list, where we will discuss which features can be defined as a core of border analysis; 3) Results of the analysis, especially relationship between the ways of depicting, the date of depicting or dissemination as well as the distribution medium.
Basing on these, will show how basic visual and distribution patterns of border representations changed over time. This will lead us to more general questions on symbolic and mental status of the Polish-German border. We will discuss what aspects of barriers between East and West disappeared and what new have been created in the discourse.
The Role of Community-Oriented Policing Implementation in Integrating Post-Conflict Societies: Experiences from Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Katarzyna Struzińska, Janina Czapska
Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland
Post-conflict countries have to deal with such conflict-related problems as a disintegration of social ties and an emergence of new barriers (e.g. social distrust) that impede social relations. A significant role in restoring peace and bringing stability to these societies is played by the international community and its efforts to foster changes, in particular, within the security sector. One of the tools that are proposed and advocated by the international community in the peace process is community-oriented policing (COP), a strategy of the police work which is focused on building closer, based-on-trust relations between police officers and citizens to solve local problems, and, consequently, to make local communities safer. Even though COP is often presented as having considerable positive influence on transformation of communities, it should not be treated as a one-size-fits-all solution. The simple transplantation of COP in its forms established in the US and Western European countries to varying contexts of countries in transition faces many obstacles.
The main purpose of this paper is to reflect on the usefulness and effectiveness of COP implementation in the post-conflict context. In search for an answer to a question if COP can play an integrating role in the conditions of dismantled social and political structures, we analyse processes of COP implementation in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. Presented case studies are based on research results which were conducted in both of these countries in 2016 and 2019 within the international project ‘Community-Based Policing and Post-Conflict Police Reform’ (ICT4COP) funded by EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation Horizon 2020.
Concepts of Social-Spatial transformation: Practices of Debordering and Debordering in German-Polish Border Regions.
Vivien Sommer1, Maciej Frąckowiak2
1Leibniz Institute for Research on Society and Space, Germany; 2Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland
In 2007, Poland joined the Schengen area. The material border separating Poland and Germany disappeared and transformed the regions on both sides into "direct" neighbors. These transformational processes create new practices of debordering as well as rebordering practices. Our project DE-RE-BORD is conducted jointly by the Polish AMU Institute of Sociology and German Leibniz Institute for Research on Society and Space and its aim is to investigate socio-spatial transformation. Such transformation processes involve the creation and dissemination of new knowledge through public discourse, participation in long-term cross-border interactions, spatial appropriation, and cooperative projects, where actors from both sides of the border construct a gap and ultimately a unique cultural space.
In order to grasp these socio-spatial processes of transformation, we are investigating the knowledge and practices of the actors in the border regions. The main aim of our research project is the question how the concepts of debordering and rebordering can be conceptualized in a systemized way.
In our presentation our focus will lay on these conceptualizations: First we will reflect on our definition of debordering and rebordering based on our empirical study. Therefore we will discuss questions of what kind of knowledge and practices are typical for the people living in the border regions. In how far do they changes over time with respect to this? Second we will discuss how these concepts can be used in the analysis of wider changes in the contemporary world. Based on our empirical results we will illustrate how these transformation processes in general can be analyzed through the lenses of debordering and rebordering.