Strategies Of Coping With The Unequal Access To Public Services In Urban Space
University of Warsaw, Poland
Due to the transformations of urban areas and urban sprawl phenomena, both in new and in old districts within the city access to public services may be very uneven. This division of living conditions constitutes one of the boundaries in the modern cities. An important question presents itself in the following: how does the situation mentioned above affect the quality of life and the individuals’ strategies of coping with the deficit in public services?
The primary objective of my study was to identify and explain main strategies adopted by inhabitants to sustain their livelihoods in these territories. Many papers exist which undertake this issue on a macro scale. There is a lack of a micro perspective, including the point of view of individuals. To fill the existing gap, I conduct the qualitative study through the use of two qualitative methods: data analysis and the individual in-depth interviews. I analysed availability of public services (healthcare and education) in three chosen districts of Warsaw. The other method used in the study involved in-depth individual interviews. Around ninety interviews were conducted.
Results show, that very often decision to live in some district is dictated by different reasons than accessibility of public services. It may be proximity to the family, greenery, desire to live in a single-family house rather than in flat. However, people always underline importance of accessibility of public services. To sum up, the results obtained in the study may be of an applicative nature. Conclusions may provide the basis for shaping urban policies, which should carry the weight of the strategies of individuals.
Living Alone in Urban Context - the Case Study of the Historic Center of Santarem
Universidade Nova de Lisboa- Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Portugal
Considering that being / living alone is an increasingly complex phenomena in urban environment, which can have origin in a personal, professional, economic and even emotional loss, or which may only be a personal choice.
There for and considering the above, it is sought in this work to characterize the community,(Santarem Historic Center) considering the demographics and population, housing, built heritage and existing facilities, in a way to understand the meaning of living alone in this social reality and particular urban context.
While it is also sought to elaborate a typological analysis of those who live alone, considering the causes and effects of this experience to one, and always considering the personal, social, cultural, professional and other antecedents that are the origin of this living, as well as the results, emotions, feelings, interventions and social dynamics that exist daily or that arise due to this experience.
Within this work, I also considered necessary to discuss the specific interventions needed and the process through which interventions may be implemented among the population identified and analyzed, in order to combat and minimize the potentially harmful effects of these phenomena.
This particular territory was chosen in the scope of the professional duties of the doctorate in the Office of the Historic Center of the Santarém City Hall, in order to deepen the knowledge about a particular theme and reality, increasingly common and still little studied, in particular in this territory, to foster the development of interventions and activities in the community and urban space.
Network-based Survival Strategies of Transgender Sex Workers
European University Institute, Italy
Violence, discrimination, and financial insecurity are the problems sex workers struggle with globally. Particularly, the least protected members of our societies, such as transgender sex workers, are targeted with these threats disproportionately. Research has consistently revealed that relying on others for support is a survival imperative in marginalized, high-violence, or low-income communities. However, while coping with common external threats, the challenges internal to a community might affect supportive relationships.
In urban Turkey, the site of this research, transgender sex workers also have restricted access to formal protection mechanisms, for the criminalized street-based sex work creates barriers between workers and state authorities. Furthermore, the informal sex industry entails competition for income and clients. Sex workers experience physical and psychological violence and financial insecurity in their day-to-day lives.
In this study, I explore the patterns of support networks among workers to cope with these threats. In addition, I examine whether the co-existence of threats and competition creates a dilemma between solidarity and conflict and hence undermines the creation of support networks. The study is based on ethnography and semi-structured interviews (August 2017 - February 2019).
The findings suggest that workers collectively cope with threats. However, the scope of support networks depends on the form of threats. Informal support networks have complex patterns because support exchanges are domain-specific. Solidarity and conflict can co-exist. The separation between finance and safety-related matters helped them to form strong solidarity to protect themselves from violence and kept competition under control. I discuss the implications in relation to their constant struggle for space and the precarious conditions the criminalized sex industry entails.
The Banality of Evil: Discrimination within Everyday Life
University of Glasgow, United Kingdom
Arendt (2006) stuns the reader with the idea that how human beings can take part in atrocities and their actions can result in something vicious, or bluntly evil, while being just a normal human being. Arendt (2006) also argues that “this normality was much more terrifying than all the atrocities put together for it implied”. This research questions the normality of discriminative practices in urban space via private neighbourhoods while investigating the dynamics behind creating boundaries and borders within urban space. It focuses on the case of branded housing projects in Istanbul. The branded housing projects are private neighbourhoods which provide urban services and facilities within their confines privately and exclusively for their residents. The projects have been expanded within the last two decades and their number in Istanbul only exceeded 800 (Saricayir 2014). As a particular means of provision of social services, this practice inherently excludes various groups of society reaching key urban infrastructure. The research traces this normality of discriminative practices in urban space by interviewing the residents of these private neighbourhoods. It questions how a very normalised practice - living in a private neighbourhood - can result in creating commodified and exclusionary social services and how this means of provision may be detrimental for the future of cities.