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Location:UP.4.210 University of Manchester
Building: University Place, Fourth Floor
Beliefs and Ideologies Regarding Filiation and Family Models: Attitudes and Behaviours against Surrogate Gestation
María José Rodríguez-Jaume, Diana Jareño-Ruiz, María José González-Río
University of Alicante, Spain
Subrogation is one of the most controversial forms of affiliation among public opinion even though it has become a global industry.
This communication presents the results of a scoping review, from 29 studies that have evaluated the opinion and attitudes of society regarding subrogation as a new reproductive practice specifically between 1982-2016. Its purpose was to synthesize the available scientific information to identify areas of uncertainty and social construction processes, key aspects in the decision making process regarding reproductive rights. The search of the scientific literature was carried out in the databases WOS, SCOPUS and ProQuest, without temporal and geographic restrictions, being complemented with references cited in primary sources, in review articles and in specialized journals of manual search.
The research suggests that, in general, society disapproves of this practice and that subrogation is perceived as the least accepted option among the options offered by non-coital reproduction. It has been suggested that this social sanction is based on the fact that motherhood by subrogation truncates Western hegemonic ideological models of family and motherhood.
Key-words: Surrogacy, Assisted Reproduction Techniques, Family Models, Public Opinion, Scoping Review.
How To Get A Baby? An Analysis Of Spanish Gestational Surrogacy Online Services.
Chaime Marcuello-Servos, Paz Olaciregui-Rodríguez
UNIVERSIDAD DE ZARAGOZA, Spain
There is a myth in consumer societies: market is there to satisfy desires of people. In the market society, everything seems to be for sale. Anyone who has enough money can buy anything, whether the law allows it or not. If someone with enough money demands a good or a service, then he creates a market. With Information and Communication Technologies, the market has become digital and online. In addition, since 1978 assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have allowed the creation of 'test-tube babies'. ARTs have served to satisfy many people's desire for fatherhood and motherhood and has created an industry with diverse options. One of them is the gestational surrogacy.
This paper aims to analyse the offer of ‘surrogacy online services’ in the Spanish market. In the name of freedom, profit and non-profit organizations deal with rights, expectations and technologies. Having a baby has become more than just a gift of life. You can knock on the door of the surrogacy industry and purchase a baby. How does the online market work? Who are the operators of this market? What are the social consequences?
The paper is divided in five sections including introduction and final remarks. First, the Spanish context of surrogacy is described. Second, the online presence of gestational surrogacy organizations and services is analysed. Third, the main social debates and political positions are discussed. This is not just a matter of infertility health issue; it affects the model of society we want.
Over-Razionalization Of Procreative Projects. Surrogacy Read Through The Theory Of Narcissistic Societies
Narcissistic societies are focused on the daily present, low engagement in relational activities unless the relation is merely utilitarian. Usually narcissism in sociology is linked to low natality and poor projection into future generations. In this paper, on the contrary, I will link theory of narcissism to the social acceptance of gestational surrogacy, understood as an advanced way to realize the desire of having a baby at any cost but also, in many cases, as a way for women to pursue emancipatory/social mobility plans. I will highlight that in narcissistic societies, which are products of a broader process of rationalization, individuals are expected to prove their power through the realization of personal will over life-course and natural events: therefore they need to be good architects of life projects regardless constraints or casualty. Technology is the perfect ally in this endeavor and children are transformed into 'mean to an end'. Another feature of narcissistic societies is the devaluation of symbolic elaboration: practices that are different and similar are subsumed into non-distinctive categories, the subrogate is made the same as the original. In this line, conception made in laboratory is seen as the same, in term of quality of ultimate product, as natural procreation; gestational surrogacy is often conflated with adoption, and fetal development in carrier-uterus is considered technically the same as a pregnancy in the mother who is going to nurture the child once born. Thirdly, in narcissistic societies the father's authority is devalued: given that in parental relations source for authority is not given by money, which kind of authority are fathers through surrogacy representing?