Citizen Engagement In Nature Conservation. Shifting Discourses And Policies In The Netherlands.
Wageningen University, Netherlands, The
Ever since their emergence in the late 19th century, nature conservation efforts have included forms of citizen mobilization, education, and participation. In the last three decades, debates on citizen engagement gained central stage in nature policy and management. In this paper, we analyze these debates in the Netherlands on the basis of document analysis and interviews with key actors. Three dominant discourses are identified: 'ecology first', 'broad engagement', and 'green economy'. All three have impact on policies and practices of citizen engagement, but the 'ecology first' discourse has been dominant in this respect. We identify factors explaining the relative strength of the discourses, such as EU policy and the ecosystem services approach. We discuss the relevance of our findings for international debates, and implications for advancing citizen engagement, among others in consideration of current trends towards economization of nature protection.
Integration of Acceptability Studies into Adaptive Landscape Design
Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Germany
Studies on acceptability are often perceived as stand-alone or self-contained studies in which the contextualisation of results is neglected. Almost always acceptability studies are only a piece of puzzle of a broader picture. Our experiences have taught us that reflecting and integrating results is a crucial step. That is why we aim at introducing a new approach that shows how to integrate acceptability studies in adaptive landscape design. This is an outcome of our empirical studies from a German case study on cultural landscape transformation. The approach is mainly suitable for place-based innovation processes, which contribute to sustainable landscape management. It is grounded on several assumptions: existence of recursive patterns of acceptability, importance of social learning and reflexive learning processes, and a need of flexible decision-making and actors’ involvement. Whereas the first assumption is rather uncommon, the other assumptions are incorporated into some established epistemological concepts such as innovation system approaches, adaptive landscape co-design or co-management and collaborative landscape governance. Our approach is divided in four sequential steps: 1) clarifying the precondition for acceptability analysis, 2) conducting the acceptability study, 3) integrating the results into the landscape design, and 4) refine the landscape design by involving different actors and groups. Normally, the iterative cycle may start again once the four steps have been passed through. Our approach contributes to understand complex process dynamics when dealing with landscapes and to link until now separately conceived conceptual strands – landscape governance concepts and acceptability.
Community Based Water Management in Rural Chile: An Institutional Ethnography
Bristol University, United Kingdom
Although Institutional Ethnography (IE) has clear emancipatory goals, it has not been widely applied to the area of natural resource management. This contribution attempts to fill this gap by looking at community based water management in rural Chile through IE.
In Chile, Rural Sanitary Services (RSS) work as a partnership between the State and rural communities to provide drinking water and sanitation to rural areas. 'Rural Drinking Water Associations' (APRs) are responsible for the management and operation of the RSS. More than 1800 APRs are represented by the APR's National Federation which has created a law that protects them from private sanitary companies, after 14 years of negotiations with the government. The Federation is now advocating for changes to the Water Code, the main water legislation which privitised water in 1981 creating a water market.
This presentation will share results from my fieldwork where I use IE to explore the ways in which the Federation is organised. Taking the standpoint of an APR located in the semi-arid north of Chile, I start from people’s work experiences and go beyond them, to understand the social and political processes involved in people’s everyday activities. THrough this bottom up approach, I explore the organisation of rural drinking water within the borader institution of water management in Chile.
I hope to contribute to this research group both theoretically and empirically by sharing my experience of doing an IE in Chile in the context of community water management, critically considering how a very distinctive organisation gets involved in law making.
Private Trees For Public Benefit: Comparing Regulatory Frameworks Concerning Cutting Off Trees On Private Land In Poland, Germany And Lithuania.
1Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland; 2University of Greifswald, Germany; 3Mykolas Romeris University, Lithuania
Trees in urban areas are part of the green infrastructure, provide multiple ecosystems services and are important for ecological processes and quality of life. A density of trees cover is related to land cover and land use characteristics. Nevertheless, trees coverage of urban areas has been declining for several decades, due to pressure from development and attitudes of inhabitants towards trees that are mixed, ranging from tree lovers to tree haters.
One approach to deal with the decline of tree coverage is the creation of by-laws or ordinances that regulate tree removal on private property through a permitting process. These regulations aim at protecting the private urban forests and specific categories of trees.
Research on privately owned forests in Europe shows a significant variety of ownership rights between the countries, which stems from the historical development of political and legal systems, as well as geographical distribution. A significant impact on regulations on trees coverage in built areas was found.
In Poland, changes in the regulations concerning permits for cutting off trees in private land had an impact on cutting off trees. In this paper, analysis of regulatory frameworks concerning cutting off trees in private land in Poland, Germany, and Lithuania are compared. It is investigated what form of restrictions on rights to private property are imposed. Do categories of trees involve different property rights? What kind of regulatory areas do the restrictions belong to (spatial planning, environmental protection, other)? What is the level of the regulation (municipal, national etc.)?
Politics of Environmental Governance on High-level Nuclear Waste Management in South Korea
The Catholic University of Korea, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)
The politics of risk management regarding science, technology and environment in modern societies is closely related to the conflicts between technocracy and democracy. Nuclear waste management system is a good case showing the politics of risk management and the “politics of expertise”. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the evolution of nuclear waste management system and the politics of expertise in South Korea from the viewpoint of environmental governance.
Since the initial launch of a nuclear power plant in 1978, South Korea today has 25 nuclear reactors. They account for 35% of the nation's total power generation, and rank 5th in the world in terms of capacity. South Korea barely succeeded in securing low and intermediate level nuclear waste disposal site in 2005 after tremendous social conflicts. However, Korea is currently confronted with much more difficult task of high level nuclear waste management. Korean government’s nuclear waste management paradigm can be characterized as technocratic: it has pursued elitist approach so far relying exclusively on experts and technical bureaucrats. No significant participation of civil society has been allowed until recently. However, Korea’s anti-nuclear movement has been expanding its influence after Fukushima nuclear disaster and German government’s declaration of nuclear phase-out policy, strongly demanding public dialogue program on nuclear waste issues as well as phasing-out existing reactors.
One of the recent responses from Korean government is the official announcement that they are going to launch “Public Dialogue and Participation Program” regarding high-level nuclear waste policy making this year as a way of democratic risk management. Does this mean a paradigm change from technocratic to participatory environmental governance with regard to nuclear waste management?