"When I Was A Child It Was Different". Young Daughters Of Migrants’ Retrospective View Of Their Biographical Path To Belonging
1University of Bologna, Italy; 2University of Milan Bicocca, Itasly
Multiple and processual belonging of migrants’ descendants is an established issue in migration studies. However, few studies concentrate on the transformation of belonging throughout a person’s life course and the relationship between belonging and transition to adulthood, as an effect of scant dialogue between migration studies and youth studies. Starting from both these two fields of studies and adopting a temporal perspective, our paper focuses on the moving barriers and opportunities young people with ethnic background tackle along their “path to belonging”, throughout their life course, from childhood to adulthood. Our specific focus is on migrants’ young daughters (aged 20-26 and born or raised in Italy) and their retrospective view of their gendered and generational process of transitions. Drawing from recent qualitative research, we explore their everyday practices (within family and with peers) and shed light particularly on the triangulation of age, gender and ethnicity in shaping their experiences of transition to adulthood and belonging.
Results show that migrants’ daughters deal with intergenerational and intragenerational expectations both within family and institutional contexts (school and workplace), from childhood onwards. In particular, their life course is affected by dominant regimes of visibility, in terms of age, gender and ethnicity, through which their “difference” is reified, practised and challenged. However, results also show that their new biographical trajectories are experienced mainly when they reach across age boundaries (along the journey from childhood to youth and adulthood). Indeed, age operates as a structuring dimension which can enhance or constrain their transitions towards new belongings.
Context and Change: A Longitudinal Analysis of Attitudes About Immigrants in Adolescence
Umeå University, Sweden
Research has explored many different relationships between contextual influences, such as levels of immigration or economic condition, and attitudes about immigrants with mixed results. These have largely been international comparative studies using cross-sectional data, therefore they have been unable to make claims about changes in environmental context translating to changes in attitudes of respondents. Furthermore, the previous literature has almost exclusively tested these relationships using data from adults, despite research showing that attitudes are most subject to change during adolescence. This study addresses these issues by employing a longitudinal dataset of repeated measures of 2,328 German adolescents (ages~ 14-18) over four response waves (2010-2014). Using a multi-level analysis, results show that contextual changes including the percent of foreign born people and unemployment rates within respondents’ states, correspond to changes in attitudes towards immigrants consistent with group threat theory. These results were stable even when controlling individual level factors.
Populism in Action: Xenophobia, Anti-migrant Attitudes and Identity of Hungarian Youth, Across Borders
Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca, Romania
During the last decades, several studies have pointed out how Kin-state politics influence majority and minority communities and how external minorities become the tools of the populist political discourses (see Brubaker, Hroch, Smith).
The aim of this paper is to analyse how the anti-migration and new citizenship-related populist political and national discourses from Hungary, influenced the anti-migrant attitudes, by increasing the social distances, general xenophobia and prejudices against different groups including migrants (such as refugees, migrants, Muslims or Chinese), related with the national identity profiles, among the Hungarian youth, in Hungary, and in neighboring countries (Romania, Slovakia Serbia and Ukraine). Methodologically we used survey data (survey, 15-29 old, 4000 cases, 5 countries) and, mainly quantitative methods (regression models), but also focus-group results from last four years.
Attitudes towards national groups and minorities are discussed along the system of relations majority-minority and national identity. The literature about xenophobia, antisemitism and the anti-Roma attitudes delimits four factors that have an influence on and determine the xenophobic and prejudiced, negative attitudes towards ethnic and social, minority groups in Hungary. These are the following: social demographic background, social-psychological and social values factors, migration experiences, as well as variables related to political values and options (Csepeli et.al, 2006).
Our results show that the anti-migrant campaign and the political discourse about the Hungarians living outside the borders of Hungary contributed substantially, as expected, to increase the xenophobic attitudes of Hungarian youth from both Hungary and its neighboring countries. It may be observed that the historically formed prejudiced behavior is in closed connection with the factor of anti-migration and xenophobia, followed by other social-demographic, national, minority identity-related and political culture factors.