Cultural Traumas, Human and Sustainable Development. The 1980 Earthquake in Italy after over Thirty Years
University of Salerno, Italy
Italy's history has often been marked by natural disasters (especially earthquakes and floods), last but not least the earthquake on August 24, 2016, in two regions: Lazio and Marche. Such a phenomenon requires overcoming mundane interpretations since it encompasses numerous complex experiences and ways of life (different stories, personal events and conditions), which together represent one of the most significant expressions of the social sphere. Catastrophes lead to an array of consequences and economic, psycho-social and cultural transformations, whose significance has not yet been sufficiently investigated, despite they causing a real fracture (trauma) in the structure and life of the affected communities. In this proposal, our attention is focused on the Laviano area, a little village in the province of Salerno, in Southern Italy. The town was completely demolished by an earthquake on November 23, 1980, which caused over 300 dead. The earthquake destroyed not only houses, but also the area's “common identity”, already in crisis due to massive emigration. However, the community does not seem to surrender, and it strives to rebuild a new identity focusing on young people born and grown after the earthquake. The research “Laviano Restored” is based on the idea that a “soul restitution” to the Laviano population could still be possible through the recovery of collective memory, starting from an interactive 3D virtual reconstruction and a scale model of the town before the 1980 earthquake, in order to reinforce the territorial sense of belonging.
Can Natural Disaster Be An Opportunity? Studying De-Population Of Central Italy Rural Communities After The 1997 Earthquake.
Gran Sasso Science Institute, Italy
Socio-Natural Disasters are a global issue but, being the intersecting result of an uncontrollable nature and a complex society, they cannot have a unique global solution. Similar hazards could indeed result in different (or none at all) disasters depending on the affected territorial and social context.
Italy presents itself as an interesting and peculiar context and case study. Due to its particular geographical characteristics, three out of four major seismic event of the last decades, affected the country rural areas, in particular around the Central Apennines.
Rural communities, inhabiting this area, are burdened by decades-old processes of ageing and depopulation but, by controlling and taking care of the territory, they are important strategic resources for all Italian society. After the last major Socio-Natural Disaster a question has arisen: are rural communities of Central Italy sentenced to be completely abandoned?
Through the framework of Community Resilience, the study envisions a time-sensitive quantitative analysis functional to observe resilience's dynamics over different degrees of rurality in Central Italy. We adopted a quasi-experimental strategy, making use of the communities’ internal population variation as a proxy for community resilience, and a suitable control group to isolate - and individuate - the effect of the Community Resilience triggered by the disaster.
Our results highlight a stabilising effect, where the affected communities depopulate with slower rates in comparison with the control group. Moreover, we observed that different degrees of rurality in the affected area are not directly correlated with better or worse performance in population variation.
Are You Willing to Stay in Public Emergency Shelter? The Factors Influence Households’ Sheltering plan for Flood and Slope-land Disasters
National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction, Taiwan
In order to find the factors influence households’ choices of sheltering and estimate the needs of public emergency shelters (PESs) for flood and slope-land disasters in Taiwan, a nationwide social survey was conducted in Aug. 2018. Considering the risk is vary in different areas, 368 towns of whole country were aggregated into 9 risk (level) zones (LL/ F2~F5/ D2~D5). Each risk zone is sampled and analyzed separately. The factors of survey are education, social networks, wealth, disaster and sheltering experiences, family structure, age, and disability etc. The total of respondents are 4,802, Several Results showed as follows: (1) Households without “other self-owned residence” or “residence offered by relatives/friends” have higher opportunity willing to stay in public shelters when a severe flood or slope-land disaster occurs. (2) In F5 zone (high risk zone of flood), it also shows that “lower education” and “no disaster experience” were significant factors of households’ willingness to stay in PESs. (3) Households of D5 zone (high risk zones of debris-flow) who had had experience to stay in PESs had lesser opportunity willing to stay in public emergency shelter again. (4) D4 zone shows “no cars/motors” and “lower family income” were more willing to stay in PESs. Models of each zone were established for estimating the amount of people who may choose to stay in PESs, and the number of needs such as food, water, clothes, equipment, spaces, manpower etc. when a severe disaster occurs. It’s a useful tool for local governments to prepare what they need before disasters, also helps disaster managers to do better resources distribution.
Trust, Social Determinants, and Resource Distribution after a Catastrophic Typhoon
1National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction, Taiwan; 2National Taiwan University
This study investigated the effects of social determinants and resource distribution after a catastrophic typhoon on trust in various levels of government. The first and third waves of the Social Impact and Recovery Survey of Typhoon Morakot of the National Science and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction in Taiwan were analyzed. The first and third waves were conducted 1 and 3 years after Typhoon Morakot, respectively. Multivariate analysis of variance was the statistical method adopted. We suggest that trust in the central government is relatively low immediately after a major disaster but rebounds over time. We determined that the trust in lower levels of government was higher than that in higher levels of government, particularly immediately following a disaster. The pattern remained over time; however, the gap eventually decreased. Among the five social determinants tested, ethnicity was more prominent than age, education, gender, and income. We determined that minorities trusted governments more immediately after a disaster, controlling for resource distribution. However, in the long term, minorities trusted governments less than do the majority, as suggested in the literature. Additionally, in contrast to the conservation of resource theory, which suggests that resource loss is the most prominent concern, we determined that resource match, a concept we propose, and resource gain are prominent concerns. Resource match is particularly crucial immediately after a disaster. This study determined that an updated post-disaster model of trust must prioritize ethnicity and resource distribution. We also suggest that further research should include data on pre-disaster trust.