RN35_06b_H: Naming and Framing Migrants and Refugees - Processes of Inclusion and Exclusion III
Citizenship and immigration debates in Greece: new contexts, old dilemmas?
1UNIVERSITY OF SURREY, United Kingdom; 2OPEN UNIVERSITY, UK; 3UNIVERSITY OF CYPRUS, UK; 4ARISTOTLE UNIVERSITY OF THESSALONIKI, GREECE; 5DEMOCRITUS UNIVERSITY OF THRACE, GREECE
This paper draws on public deliberation discourses on a new citizenship law in Greece and discusses the lines of argument identified in the ways in which citizenship is negotiated in the context of ‘the current situation in Greece’ – the financial situation and ensuing political consequences internally and in the EU, and the refugee and migration issues, heightened since the beginning of 2015. The law, which included for the first time provisions for jus soli access to Greek citizenship, was uploaded for public deliberation on the online platform www.opengov.gr. We analysed the posts submitted to the platform focusing on the ones addressed to the article which concerned citizenship provisions for the children of immigrants. These were analysed based on the premises of rhetorical and critical discursive social psychology. In the posts throughout, commentators commonly introduced their comments on the citizenship law with an etymological definition of ‘ithageneia’ (‘directly descented’), followed by a distinction between ‘ithageneia’ and ‘ypikootita’ (‘subject of’). This distinction did not necessarily culminate into arguments in support of granting Greek citizenship to the children of immigrants. Rather, commentators also commonly mobilized nature or the laws of nature and institutional law, and drew a distinction between the two as incompatible, arguing that ithageneia is not reducible to institutional laws. In doing so, nevertheless, commentators drew on institutional laws and constructed the citizenship law as illegal and/or unconstitutional, appealed to universal laws on national determination, constructed immigrants as illegal or distinguished the people from the state and called for a referendum. We discuss the ways in which these arguments are implicated in processes of othering and inclusion in the context of current immigration debates.
Everyday Nationhood on the Web: An Analysis of sentiments & Discourses Surrounding Romanian & Bulgarian Migration to the UK Using Twitter Data
University of Southampton, United Kingdom
On 1st January 2014, restrictions were lifted on the migration of Romanians and Bulgarians to the UK. Leading up to this date and since then, heated debate has ensued about the impact of this migration. Discourses and images of the country being swamped by this new ‘other’ have proliferated. We employ a mixed-methods approach to investigate how these debates were discursively constructed over the micro-blogging platform Twitter between October 2013 and March 2014. We first explore differences among users with a high degree of network centrality (mostly but not only popular British media outlets) and the far more numerous isolated users with low network centrality. Drawing on the concept of everyday nationalism, we then ask: how do individuals, those with low network centrality, rather than politicians or the media shape ideas about who can belong to the nation on an everyday basis; and what kind of nationalisms do micro-blogging platforms enables in relation to debates about immigration. Discourse analysis of the tweets reveals the presence of both anti-immigrant and pro-immigrant discourses. However, the former conveys a cohesive set of narratives of exclusive nationalism, while the latter are too diverse and complex to promote an inclusive idea of Britishness. Further quantitative analysis on sentiments and ideology embedded in the tweets confirm these qualitative findings. Our findings suggest that micro-blogging platforms provide a convenient vehicle for those promoting heightened exclusive nationalisms.
Out of the Shadows: Refugee Policy in the Time of Crisis
1University of Warsaw, Poland; 2University of Gdańsk, Poland; 3Warsaw School of Economics, Poland
The so called European refugee crisis of2015 placed refugee policies at the centre of heated public debates in the whole Europe, including the countries in which the public awareness of refugee policies was very weak despite the fact that such policies existed. In this paper, we analyze how public attention to an issue impacts its framing in public policies by comparing three countries: Hungary, Poland, and Romania. Each of them reacted differently to the European crisis: Hungary openly refused to accept the relocation scheme, Romania accepted the scheme, while Poland was trying to avoid accepting the relocations, although did not openly announce so.
The paper is based on the analysis of Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, and European level policy documents (acts, ordinances, strategies etc.); opinion polls on attitudes towards refugee policies; and media coverage of refugee crisis and policies; and interviews with actors relevant to the refugee policy-making and implementation.
Our research shows that the upsurge of public attention impacted framing of the refugee policies. The policies run earlier in a technocratic mode under significant influence of European Commission became the subject of ‘hot negotiations’, which in turn opened the door for the production of new framings, e.g. the one suggesting that these policies primarily address the issues of security of a host country and not the protection of the refugees.
Social Inclusion of Indian Punjabis in Germany: From Refugees to Citizens
KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, India
This paper focuses on the Indian Punjabis who migrated to Germany in mid-1980s due to Khalistan movement and consequent political turmoil back in the country and eventually settled in the host society. Most of them belong to the Sikh community and are easily identifiable due to their distinct headgear. The authors met quite a few of them during the pilot study on Indian diaspora in Germany in cities like Berlin, Cologne and Frankfurt. Now in their mid-forties, most of them arrived in Germany in the early or mid-twenties. The peculiarity of this profile of Indians in Germany lies in the fact that these Punjabis came to the host society as refugees but eventually became citizens through matrimonial alliances with native Germans or political asylum. Initially surviving on low-skilled jobs, most of them are presently engaged in the Indian culinary industry in Germany. In this paper, the authors’ aim is to capture each of their journeys in Germany from being irregular migrants to German citizens within the larger context of assimilation, social inclusion and socio-political integration of migrants in the host society. The paper would chronicle case studies of such refugees-turned-citizens of Germany from India within the larger context of recent refugee crisis in the host society and the challenges of social inclusion and integration of them in the mainstream German social life.
Key Words: Indian Punjabis, Indian Migrants in Germany, Social Inclusion, Social Integration, Refugee Crisis
Willy Nilly Belonging: The Fears and Exclusionary Practices of/against Greece Turks and Anatolian Greeks after Population Exchange
1OHU, Turkey; 2Research Affiliate, FBC SUNY B
The French Revolution at the end of the 18th Century was an important milestone in shaping political structure of Europe through the next two eras. By the 19th Century nationalism dramatically spread all over the Europe including the Ottoman Empire. Then based on the Lausanne Convention thousands of people had to expulse simultaneously between Greece and Turkey for the sake of the nationalism requires homogeneity by its own nature.
However, this expulsion had caused exclusionary paradoxes since both the Christian Greeks in Turkey and Muslim Turks in Greece have been framed through ipso facto culture unique to their former habitus. Therefore the population exchange had not been in line with the expected cohesion based on the national and religious patterns at both sides. On the contrary, the exchange program has further caused the social exclusion and in turn their marginalization in their new homes along with the fear against their de facto habitual societal values.
In this study, we aim at historical comparison of the fears and exclusionary experiences of bilaterally exchanged people of Greeks in Corfu and Turks in Yesilburc Village at Nigde Turkey. Additionally we aim to underline the patterns and dynamics of solidarities at both communities since they developed a communal identity based on the solidarities. The findings will be gathered through the in-depth interviews and narratives at both sides.
Keywords: Population Exchange, Greeks, Turks, Exclusion, Fear, Solidarity