Women and crisis. Are social interventions gender sensitive?
1LUMSA University, Italy; 2Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
The recent economic crisis impacts on individuals and families and redefines roles, behavior patterns, individual strategies and expectations.
The topic of gender appears useful to understanding the changes taking place within the context of the regime of south-Europe welfare. As a large, multidisciplinary literature shows, poverty is not gender neutral. Women, especially in the Mediterranean culture, living a double failing: one into the family institution, which often relegates them to a secondary and dependent role; the other, internal to the labour market, which puts them in a fragile and precarious position. Therefore, there is a female way of living and face the poverty.
The research will explore if social interventions against poverty carried out in a Mediterranean city are able to operate in a gender sensitive manner.
The study focuses on some social intervention pathways initiated by the activation of the instrument “Experimental Social Card” promoted by the Ministry of Labour and operated by the City of Rome, which combines economic subsidy to a custom social intervention. In the study are considered the actions taken towards female population to identify the characteristics of applicants (family structure, types of discomfort, age, etc.) and the recurring characteristics of activation projects. Through qualitative methodologies, the research presents the ways in which the question of gender is interpreted and used within these social interventions.
Economic Crisis and its Impact on Women in Greece
ATHENS UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS, Greece
Most of the industrialized world entered a deep recession in 2008–2009 as the financial crisis that began in the USA evolved to a global recession with multiple economic, employment, and social implications. Despite measures taken by governments worldwide, unemployment, poverty, inflation, and national debts rose in an unprecedented manner (Eurostat, 2009; World Bank, 2009). Southern Europe has been affected the most. As a result, the European Union (EU) reacted with harsh anti-crisis austerity policies, creating growing unemployment, falling real wages, cuts in the social security system, erosion of the collective agreement system and privatisation of public property (Busch, Hermann, Hinrichs & Schulten, 2013).
Women and young people have suffered most from this situation. Although attitudes towards the ability of women to move ahead are improving, the economic situation limits available opportunities and favours the equality gap.
In this paper we will present the overall economic crisis and its impact on women in employment, in education, in decision making and in entrepreneurship. We will then discuss initiatives which aim at supporting women in order to face the current crisis in Greece. Despite the limited results of supportive measures our research shows that there is a growing awareness that women can play a crucial role in helping the country exit its crisis.
Greek Society is accepting the fact that women should participate more in family, political or social decisions and have a stronger voice in proposing solutions for facing the existing situation. Hopefully, when the present economic crisis is over, women will face a smaller gender gap due to the high level of educational qualifications and ability to cope with harsh difficulties during the crisis.
Gender, (Un)employment and Gender Equality Policy in Europe: the place of Portugal
Interdisciplinar Centre of Social Sciences (CICS.Nova_UMinho), Portugal
Articulate gender with labour market reveals a complex task that involves several vectors, though, roughly speaking, we can say that the evidence of gender inequalities as cross-cutting trend is particularly harmful to women.
In relation with the Portuguese context, it should be noted that the Portuguese revolution of 25 April 1974, validated by the Portuguese Constitution with subsequent legislation, was a key milestone for the consecration of gender equality, certainly from the legal-political point of view, but also with impacts in the of area public policies and social and labour practices: support to pregnancy, maternity and family leave, assignment of minimum wage and unemployment subsidy in the context of growing feminization in education and labour market.
On the basis of Eurostat and national statistics, it is provided a map on employment rates by gender in the Member States of the European Union and, in particular, in Portugal and their phases of growth, stagnation and decline, as well as, to the contrary, the correlative unemployment rates. It is also given a map of part-time work and reasons for this modality, as well as the particularities of part-time work, the patterns of full-time or partial jobs and by countries and of conjugality and parenting in couples with children or without children. Finally, we will analize the impact of motherhood on the employment of their respective couples; the female employment rate by level of education and number of children; the division of time by extrahousehold paid work and unpaid domestic work.
Key words: Gender, Inequalities, (Un)Employment, European Union, Portugal
Migrant women in Greece, integration process and citizenship
University of Athens, Greece
While immigration in Greece started in the early 1980s, the first important influx of economic migrants to Greece took place in 1990s, making Greece a new destination country. It is also worth mentioning that, in the population migrating to Greece, there is a large share of women migrants, searching for employment and a better life.
Concerning the integration process of migrant women many studies highlight the crucial importance of citizenship issues. In particular, the fact that women are not enjoying their rights to have access to social goods (in particular to social security) and their rights to participate in social and political life of the countries of residence are key indicators used internationally to measure the degree of social integration of economic migrants. Accordingly, migrant women’s active political participation means a higher level of integration.
On the issue of migrants’ social integration in new destination countries, a research has been conducted by EKKE (National Centre for Social Research) in 2010- financed by the European Integration Fund-, on a sample of 600 economic women migrants having had residence and work permit.
The present paper presents some research conclusions of the above mentioned survey, regarding the integration process of migrant women, living on a legal status in our country . Moreover, the paper focuses on the issues of the interest and participation of the women migrant in political life as well as in collective political activities and organizational schemes.