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RN24_01b_P: Science Policy & National Research Systems I
2:00pm - 3:30pm
Session Chair: Marcela Linkova, Institute of Sociology, Czech Academy of Sciences
Location:PC.4.27 PANTEION University of Social & Political Sciences
136 Syggrou Avenue
17671 Athens, Greece
Building: C, Level: 4.
Building Research Networks through International Scientific Laboratories in Russia
Institute for History of Science and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation
The paper focuses on the current situation regarding international S&T cooperation, academic mobility and science policy in Russia providing an overview of recent initiatives, current challenges and existing trends. One of the government initiatives includes establishing new types of international laboratories under the guidance of leading scientists from all over the world. More than 160 international laboratories have been established. We conducted a study to investigate the laboratory life in such organizations. To understand the building research networks through international scientific laboratories in Russia we used the actor-network theory by Bruno Latour. Our analysis is based on interviews with experts, leading scientists and heads of laboratories, as well as with young researchers from international laboratories in several research and education centres of Kazan, Moscow, Rostov-na-Donu, St Petersburg, Ufa, Yekaterinburg. The results of the study demonstrate that the idea to invite leading scientists for organizing international laboratories is efficient. The paper is prepared within the framework of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, 15-33-01357.
THE ROLE OF MICRO AND MACRO FACTORS BY ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING OF EUROPEAN R&D COLLABORATIONS
University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
In the paper, my starting point assumption will be that the various social factors influence the formation of joint R&D collaborations in European Union (EU). In spite of all difficulties Europe is encountering in the last time, R&D activity is still staying on the front line of its integration. R&D collaboration in context of EU is transforming in a highly organized collective »enterprise«. Seen as a whole, the processes of EU R&D integration is forming by a series of strategies, guidelines, directives, all of which together comprise the official EU "philosophy" from which the idea of a common »European Research Area" should be realized in practice. In this processes of formation of joint R&D collaborations, the national contexts from which the partners in EU R&D networks originate, have still very important role. In the paper,we will present the role of so-called national context on the case of Slovenia. I will present the macro and micro factors that ecourage (or disencourage) Slovenian scientists to establish and maintan R&D collaborations at European level. In accordance with concepts of social network theory I will define micro factors as those factors which regard to the expectations of scientists. The macro factors relate to the external frameworks over which the individual scientists have no direct influence. By combining the obtained results of our emprical analysis of macro and micro factors, I'll try to conclude with more general reflexivity about th role of national contexts in recent trends of European R&D integration.
Role of the scientific-research in the context of the new development paradigm
1Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar, Croatia; 2Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb
This presentation reflects on the changes in the role and position of the scientific-research caused by the shift in development paradigm and related public policy context. It is argued that paradigm shift, from industrial society and “managed economy” towards the “entrepreneurial economy” has moved the focus of public policies from scientific research and research-based innovation towards entrepreneurship and business innovation. Although the role of entrepreneurship is crucial for materialization of research results and innovation, the role of the scientific-research requires re-consideration under the new circumstances, especially in economically less developed countries where research systems are weak and vulnerable.
The paradigm shift in the EU research policy is formulated within the EU Cohesion policy based on the ideas of strategies of smart specialization (S3) which provide strategic framework for research policy and priorities guided by the principle of “entrepreneurial discovery process”. Despite S3 emphasizes the critical role of the scientific-research and key technologies in the entire EU, the implementation of S3 in less developed countries like Croatia failed to provide sustainability of the research system.
The evolution of the “national innovation system” focused on research-based innovation into the “national entrepreneurial system” focused on business innovation, small companies and self-employment coincided with the upswing of guiding principles of S3. These concepts and processes will be discussed in order to shed additional light on their impact on scientific research in less developed countries. The impacts are illustrated by changes in (1) operational, (2) conceptual, and (3) financial aspects of scientific research in Croatia.
Changes in Post-socialist Science Policy and Personal Narratives of Researchers
University of Belgrade, Serbia
After the end of socialist era and introduction of liberal capitalism, Serbia is more openly facing a challenge of increasing globalization and europeanization, causing many social, economic and political challenges. This transformation has been especially visible and actual in the field of science policy. New discourses and priorities were introduced producing certain expectations regarding the investment in research and evaluation of the scientific results on a global scale since the Second World War, thus gradually shaping the national policies. While accepting the global principles, post-socialist national academic communities were facing specific problems, especially related to low investment in science, old research infrastructure, traditional division between research and teaching, etc. Therefore growing internationalization of science in post-socialist countries created an atmosphere of uncertainty and turbulence that can be approached from many levels. Besides the policy studies that could say more about the state of former socialist countries in the context of emergence of the paradigm of new production of knowledge, interesting approach could be to examine how the subjects of knowledge production - researchers themselves, approach this change. Therefore an qualitative empirical study has been conducted about how researchers in Serbia perceive growing internationalization and europeanization of science policy in Serbia. The accent has been given to the evaluation of the results of research work which is an dramatic issue (especially for social sciences), but also to all the problems that local researchers are facing with globalization in local context. Sample of 25 researchers on different research positions participated in interviews and provided interesting insight to the problems of being a scientist on post-socialist periphery in the era of globalization and European integration.