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RN21_09a_P: Measuring Societal Transformations in Turbulent Times
11:00am - 12:30pm
Session Chair: Wolfgang Aschauer, University of Salzburg
Location:PC.3.16 PANTEION University of Social & Political Sciences
136 Syggrou Avenue
17671 Athens, Greece
Building: C, Level: 3.
Objective deprivation and subjective economic stress in Europe before and after the financial crises
Stefanie Kley1, Johannes Huinink2
1University of Hamburg, Germany; 2University of Bremen, Germany
In the decade before the beginning of the current financial, economic and sovereign debt crises, the European labour markets became more inclusive. In the course of such convergence one might expect that the degree to which material deprivation is associated with subjective economic stress becomes more and more the same in each country. This contribution analyses the question whether or not Europeans felt troubled by material deprivation to a similar extent in the last decade, what might shed light on the emergence of a generalized system of social stratification in Europe. The analysis makes use of all available country-data from the European Union Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) for every two years between 2005 and 2013. Mixed effects multi-level OLS-regression is applied to measure the relationship of material deprivation and subjective economic stress. The results show that the effect of material deprivation on economic stress increased between 2005 and 2013, whereas it reached its peak value in 2009, at the peak of the financial crises. The finding that in poor countries material deprivation is associated with economic stress to a lesser extent than in rich countries replicates earlier findings. The differences between the countries in the relationship between household's material deprivation and economic stress widened until 2009 and narrowed slowly afterwards. Post-estimation reveals that for deprived persons, living in Social-Democratic and corporatist countries is less stressful, closely followed by Liberal countries, whereas living in Southern European and Post-Communist countries adds extra burden on deprived households. In each of the respective years, more than one third of the overall variance in subjective economic stress stems from the country level.
Democratic Legitimacy under Pressure: Public and Elite Perceptions before and after the Global Financial Crisis
Hendrik Jakobus Kotze1, Carlos Rivero2
1Stellenbosch University, South Africa; 2Valencia University, Spain
The central question asked in this paper is how perceptions changed about democratic decision-making in selected countries after the Global Financial Crisis. Basically, we want to answer how much, if any, democratic legitimacy suffered due to the 2007-2009 Global Financial Crisis.
The research takes form of a quantitative analysis based on the World Values Surveys and a unique set of Parliamentary Elite surveys conducted in 2006 and 2012/2013, the same years as the WVS. This time span allows the analysis of the possible effect of the worst impact of the Global Financial Crisis on perceptions of democracy. Countries from different continents are included for comparison. We included: South Africa, Chile, Germany, Sweden, South Korea, Poland, and Turkey. The selection of cases is representative of a wide range of political, social and cultural diversity (catholic, protestant and Islamic; old and new democracies, presidential and parliamentarian democracies).
For our analysis we divided regime performance, our independent variable into distinct “baskets of goods”: an economic basket, that includes economic assets, jobs and an array of basic social services and a political basket, containing peace, civil liberties, political rights, human dignity and equality before the law. We thus explore two possibilities: One, that democracy is circumscribed to political issues such as political rights and civil liberties and, two, that democracy is expected to produce economic outcomes such as providing shelter and income. Our independent variable is an index of support for democracy.
Based on regression analysis our findings delivered a mixed pattern of support for democracy in the selected countries. Interesting questions for further research could be posed based on the patterned outcomes.
Socio-Cultural differences in Confidence in the European Union
Juan DIEZ-NICOLAS1, Ana LOPEZ-NARBONA2
1ASEP Spain; 2University of Malaga, Spain
This paper attempts to explain Confidence in the European Union in very different societies on the basis of social, economic and political factors in these societies using data from the six waves of the World Values Survey project. Every social fact must be analyzed and interpreted in two dimensions: space and time. The WVS project provides both possibilities, since it has included a question on Confidence in the European Union among more than a dozen other institutions in six waves since 1981 and in more than 100 different societies.
The more than 100 countries will be grouped in seven geo-cultural groups that will be used as units of analysis, though for certain purposes individual countries will also be used as units of analysis.
An index of Confidence in institutions will be produced on the basis of the institutions used.
Family values and number of children across Europe: does generation matter?
United Arab Emirates University, United Arab Emirates
The paper deals with the interaction between family values and number of children in European countries focusing on age effects. The goal of the paper is to reveal the relationship between values and fertility patterns through generations among European countries. The analysis is done for five separate age groups: 19-28, 29-38, 39-48, 49-58, 59-68 years old. The authors claim that younger generations have more egalitarian, individualistic values that prevent people from having many children. Applying modernization theory of Ronald Inglehart we explain generation effect on value changes and fertility patterns. The empirical part of the paper is based on European Value Study of 2008 (47 countries). The paper shows the significant interdependence between generations - fertility patterns and generations – values. The multilevel approach allows us to control for cross-national cultural differences and countries’ development level.