Transnational Capital/Labour Flows - Managing Cross-Border Collaborative Projects. Adapting Labour Market Policy to a Transformed Employment Structure
National Open University, Taiwan, Taiwan
The shift towards recognition of a capital-labour flows have occurred within the broader context of a globalized knowledge economy and a global race for skills. Change in a country’s employment structure is shaped by the evolution of skill supplies, implies that educational expansion and migration flows are crucial to understand occupational change. The local communities, Taiwan is in competition for its share of the intellectual capital and for the best skilled migrants. Taiwan has announced the opening of a new office for blockchain coders for financial technology, and expands its expertise in the blockchain industry. We aim to disentangle the strategy applied by Taiwan to adapt its national labour markets to increasing globalization and flexibility demands. The paper is presented as follows. First, we compare national patterns of job growth in Taiwan, extending the discussion of the reach of job polarization. Second, we examine differential patterns, building on the analysis of educational patterns of employment growth. Third, we go about understanding the relationship between capital flows, labour flows and em/migrant resettlement patterns. We assess the impact economic globalization has on the flows of the highly educated, and documents incentive programs put into place by the government to tap highly educated talent abroad. A final summary reflects on the key finding of this paper, its contribution to the research arena, as well as open questions for future research. The paper delivers both quantitative and qualitative data as well as an account of the relevant labour market reforms in Taiwan.
Key Terms skilled migration,employment policy,intellectual capital,entrepreneurial excellence,youth livelihoods
Towards ‘fair control’ over movement of labour: Labour market regulations and immigration at the EU margins
University of Warwick, United Kingdom
Recent migrants, whether from inside or outside the EU have tended to concentrate in insecure forms of employment, unlike previous waves that were finding work in relatively secure jobs mostly in manufacturing, raising the issue of a complex link between migration, flexibility and poor employment conditions. Social concerns over employment have become central in particular around free movement of workers, as exemplified by the Swiss referendum of 2014 and the British one of 2016. The paper reviews, through social survey data, labour market data, documentary and media information as well as interviews with key stakeholders, the experience of the three countries at the margins of the EU that have tried or are trying ways to regulate free movement of workers while maintaining as much free trade as possible with the EU, ie Norway, Switzerland and the UK. It identifies the extent to which labour market regulations can address social concerns over free movement while being perceived as ‘fair’ by local and migrant groups, and the role of industrial relations actors in ‘embedding’ free movement of workers into local employment regimes. The paper concludes with implications for the EU and for Brexit.
Brexit and the future of EU labour mobility to the UK: the analysis of institutional actors’ responses to changing regulatory mechanisms of migration
University of Leeds, United Kingdom
The paper aims to explore the implications and tensions of Brexit for patterns of labour mobility from the European Union to Britain. The paper investigates how different interest groups view the challenges of Brexit for labour mobility and how they seek to respond to the post-Brexit employment landscape. Brexit affects EU labour migrants, creating uncertainties for the position of EU workers in Britain, in terms of labour market rights and social protection. At the same time, this changing landscape also affects a variety of other stakeholders (Rolfe, 2016). For example, employer bodies have expressed concern over the implications of changing migration policy for skills supply, while union organisations have highlighted the consequences for working conditions and the regulation of migration. ‘New’ industrial relations actors such as labour lawyers, state agencies and migrant groups also seek to influence policy formulation around labour mobility. With the fault lines of Brexit still emerging (O’Reilly, 2016), the paper examines emerging and potential areas of agreement and tension among stakeholders. The paper draws on literatures in migration studies and employment relations, and offers an analysis of ongoing, shifting stakeholder positions using publicly available sources. The analysis looks at the putative post-Brexit migration regime in the UK and its implications for the rights of EU workers in the UK labour market, to explore the nature of ongoing social dialogue among these groups. This dialogue has important policy implications for the developing UK social model and the changing relationship with the European social model.
Europeanization of work and the implications for labour inspectorates
International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD), Austria
Europeanization of work and employment has caused fragmented and complex labour markets and sectors and occupations regulated by regulations that tend to serve employers’ demand for cheap labour by eroding labour standards. At the same time, the most extreme forms of labour and criminal law breaches are attaining increasing attention and labour inspectorates are expected to contribute to efforts to fulfil international obligations, e.g. in tackling “trafficking in human beings for the purpose of labour exploitation” (THB-LE). Labour inspectorates and other national inspecting and enforcement bodies have difficulties in overseeing and sanctioning standards in the view of this growing complexity and the multiplication of their tasks, and are acting in a climate of negative attitude of economic and political actors against their routine activities.
The paper will use the concept of the regulatory state (Majone, 1994) to analyse different regulatory approaches of labour inspecting authorities in five European countries (Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Netherlands and UK) . Particularly it will investigate whether and to what extent 1) inspectorates are required to address severe crimes such as THB-LE (ideology), and 2) the means are provided to implement these tasks (practices). We assume that debates and practices on THB-LE should be analysed as an expression and function of an ideology that draws 1) the state as defender of the vulnerable (instead of the worker and his rights) and opponent of evil traffickers to 2) legitimize the institution building of a repressive top-down enforcement of migration, tax and social security law and 3) as a specification of a meta-environment that veils capitalist logics.
Majone, G. (1994). The Rise of the Regulatory State in Europe. WEST EUROPEAN POLITICS, 17(3), 77–101.