Mismatch among graduates from the dual system of vocational training: a task-based approach
1Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Germany; 2Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Spain
The phenomenon of labour market mismatch, defined as a discrepancy between the skills and competencies of an employee and the ones required to perform that person's job, is widespread and has relevant negative effects at the individual and societal levels.
There has always been a debate about the best way to measure the mismatch phenomenon but none of the recent approaches takes into account the actual and occupation-specific tasks performed at work. We argue that comparing the tasks performed during the apprenticeship and the tasks performed in future jobs is a more detailed and accurate way of measuring mismatch.
Apart from developing a new task-based measurement of mismatch, we aim at studying in-depth the mismatch phenomenon among recent graduates from the dual system of vocational training in Germany and investigate the consequences for the career transitions in their first few years in the labour market. This is a relevant issue because this educational track has been appointed as one of the main reasons for a better performance of youth labour markets witnessed in some European countries.
We use rich administrative data from the German Sample of Integrated Labour Market Biographies (SIAB). Our first results point to the importance of the way in which mismatch is measured and support the use of the task-based indicator. Given this, we focus on this mismatch measure and use it in multivariate regression models to analyse its determinants (at individual and occupational level) and in a sequence analysis to examine the development of the graduates' careers.
Disability, education, and labour market participation: What is the effect of education inside the labour market?
Nord University, Norway
Participation in the labour market is regarded as a corner stone of active citizenship (Sainsbury and Coleman-Fountain 2013) in the Western world. Research has established that educational level is one of the most important predictors of employment for persons with disabilities (Kittelsaa, Wik, and Tøssebro 2015; Wik 2010; Molden, Wendelborg, and Tøssebro 2009; Grue and Finnvold 2014; Bø and Håland 2015), and education seems to have a larger effect for employment among disabled than among non-disabled (Kittelsaa et al. 2015, Tøssebro and Wik 2015). Hence, educational level is regarded as an important means for social mobility for disabled people. However, so far we know less about the work situation that is achieved on the background of a given educational level or type among persons with disabilities, and whether this is different for employed persons with and without disability.
In this paper we explore the question: What is the relationship between educational level or type of education and attained work situation among employed persons, and is the relationship between education and employment different among disabled and non-disabled? We will present data analyses from a Norwegian level of living survey from 2014 (EU-SILC Norway 2014), comparing the situation for employed disabled and non-disabled regarding factors like type of occupation, type of contract, and salary. We will use crosstabulations and correspondence analysis, and we will in particular focus on the relationship between type and level of education on one hand, and type of occupation on the other. The results of the analyses will be relevant for discussions about education and social mobility among disadvantaged groups in the labour market within an universalistic welfare state.
Formal, and informal, recognition of skilled migrant’s professional qualifications in the European Union and its influence in labour market outcomes: the case of Portuguese nurses
New University of Lisbon - Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, IPRI-UNL, CICS.NOVA-UNL, Portugal
In the last decades the European Union has been very active in creating legal apparatus and mechanisms to enhance intra-european labour mobility, to further establish a single labour market and to achieve the EU2020 goals of smart and inclusive growth. However, several constraints of political, legal, administrative and practical nature continue to hinder the mobility of workers and the recognition of their professional qualifications. Professional qualifications are an element of economic empowerment and distinction. Recognition is a mechanism of regulating, and ordering the access to the labour market. Therefore, formal and informal recognition of professional qualifications, or their non-recognition, influences migrants’ access to the labour market, but also the migrants’ position within the market itself. Numerous observations on the European Union context, that included third country nationals and Eastern Europeans, continue to show the underutilization of skilled migrant workers and the existence of wage differentials. Similarly, recently conducted studies about Portuguese skilled emigrants, particularly on nursing professionals, suggest disparities in status and earnings when compared to natives. These results challenge the principle of nondiscriminatory treatment of workers and disclose the phenomenon of labour market segmentation. To cope with this issue it’s relevant not only to identify the degree of influence of institutional, organizational and social contexts in the formal, and informal, recognition processes of professional qualifications, but also to understand its underlying factors and mechanisms. In this research, we focus on the case of Portuguese nursing professionals. In this research we adopt a multilevel approach, thus contributing to highlight the articulations of the various factors and mechanisms that produce inequality, between migrants and natives, in the labour market.
Insecure transitions: how differences in education lead to different employment security pathways
GREDS-EMCONET, Public Policy Center (UPF - JHU), Department of Political and Social Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain
Austerity and flexibilisation policies in Europe have eroded employment conditions, enhancing inequalities and fostering career paths marked by job insecurity and labour exclusion. In this context, the paper aims to study the extent to which labour trajectories have experienced an entrapment within circuits of insecurity during the period 2002-2012 in Catalonia (Spain), and to identify the factors associated with such exclusionary circles of insecurity. A particular emphasis is given to the effect of education and its interplay with other individual and structural elements such as gender, social class of origin and industry that enhance or prevent the protective effect of education.
The paper analyses the mobility of individuals between three states in relation to paid work, which are characterized by their different degrees of employment security: not occupied, unstable employment, and stable employment. To this end, data from the Catalan Inequalities Panel (PaD; Jaume Bofill Foundation) were adjusted through various dynamic multinomial logit random effects models that handle the unknown initial conditions problem.
The results present evidence of a strong state dependence in employment transitions as well as an intense flow of transitions between non-occupation and temporary occupation. The results also show that higher education does not prevent workers from transitioning into unstable occupations, but contributes to define whether the individual further moves into a secure employment or remains locked in the exclusionary circle around temporary employment and unemployment. Finally, results on the structural factors that contribute to explain these inclusionary and exclusionary transitions are presented in relation to the dynamics of segmentation of the Spanish labour market.