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Session Chair: Sara Falcão Casaca, ISEG, University of Lisbon
Location:PF.1.43 PANTEION University of Social & Political Sciences
136 Syggrou Avenue
17671 Athens, Greece
Building: F, Level: 1.
A smooth sea never made a skilful sailor: Gender and nautical science.
Runa Brandal Myklebust
Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway
Research into choices of higher education and its consequences for social inequality has been extensive. Much of the research aims to explain the stabilizing factors, that is, explain why and how social structures like social class and gender continue to influence individual choices. This article wishes also to contribute to the understanding of how change can come about, by exploring the motivation and considerations of students entering an extremely male dominated profession. Previous research shows that it is students of higher social background that are most likely to choose gender untraditional. Also, it’s been described how this mainly occurs in middle-class jobs. This study focuses in stead on students with working class parents, choosing an area of occupation much characterized by vocational training and skills. The article aims to explore how young males and females experience the entry into a bachelor degree in nautical science, educating them to become deck officers and captains of ships. From being an extremely male-dominated line of study, nautical science has experienced a growth in female students the last few years. My findings demonstrate how maritime knowledge and experience is used as an asset and as demarcation both by female and male students—this in contrast to previous studies. This gender neutrality in the use of professional knowledge is analytically understood as inclusion and equality, and thereby to represent change and gender desegregation. At the same time, I demonstrate how the female students experience gender constraints both when making the choice of education, and in exercising the professional role. These findings support the claim that there are also strong stabilizing factors at work, which contributes to perpetuation and segregation.
Labour Market and Gendering of Professions in Contemporary Czech Film Production
University of Economics in Prague, Czech Republic
The first part of the paper focuses on the question how people get jobs in the domain of film production in the context of contemporary Czech film industry. Prominent theories of “flexible specialization” (Storper and Christopherson) and “semi-permanent work groups” (Blair) are introduced and applied to the Czech context, which has been shaped by the transition from nationalized film studios with permanent employees to the post-1989 project-based system managed by private film producers. One feature of the labour market that immediately comes to focus is the fact that many professions in film production are gendered and there is considerable inequality in the access to various professions, a fact that has been referred to as the “celluloid ceiling” in literature on the subject (e.g. Kelly, Robson). The second part of the paper focuses on this particular issue in detail. Based on the analysis of Czech industrial publications and qualitative interviews with selected film professionals working in gendered professions (such as script supervisors and set designers), the paper seeks to explain how gendering of professions in film production is constructed by industrial discourse and how it is interpreted by people working in such professions. In conclusion, the paper identifies various stereotypes (women are better at multitasking, women are more empathetic, etc.) that circulate in various discourses and form the basis for differences and inequalities on the labour market and in labour process.
Gendered leadership in SET: Care does not have to Disturb Research!
Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Germany
In this paper care will be an implicit issue under the focus of output orientation, commitment and availability of female professors in science and technology which have been influenced by new economy. The background of the paper is a German research project, lasting from 2009 to 2012, financed by the Ministry of Education and Research and the European Social Funds (Sagebiel 2013). Results will be taken from one governmental research organisation and one university based on qualitative guided interviews with professors.
For research in SET acquisition of paid projects has become the first priority and professors in leadership positions are responsible for this. In this situation top scientists have to become entrepreneurs. This means a cultural change to output oriented research. Professors not only expect longer working times from themselves, but, they expect intrinsic motivation and more hours work than in the contract also from the scientific researchers. Integration of staff with family responsibilities becomes a new task for professors as leading persons, accepting partly constraints for family people, for example that they leave the work place at special times, but, at the same time expect high scientific productivity and output in time. But, there is a belief in research that offering possibilities to organize working time and home responsibilities is enough. Most interviewees do not reflect that the expectation of prolongation of work time and qualified output can be contradictory to a family engagement.
The results will be confronted with gendered organisational studies, feminist studies and critical labour studies.
Women in science. Research collaboration in Italian Academia from a gender perspective.
Elisa Bellotti1, Luigi Guadalupi2
1University of Manchester, United Kingdom; 2IRISS
The paper analyses the position and outcome of female scientists in the local system of public funding to academic disciplines in Italy. In specific, we look at 10 years (2001 – 2010) of the Italian Ministry of University and Research funding of Projects of National Interest (Prin) in all the disciplinary areas: in this dataset we observe the percentage of women funded in each discipline, their role in the grants and in the academia, their tendency to collaborate across gender compared to their male counterpart, and the total amount of funding they receive in the ten years under analysis. While results presented here are preliminary, they suggest that women are still under-represented in Italian academia, they occupy less prestigious roles and overall receive less money than male scientists. Differences across disciplinary areas are discussed, and used to inform a future research agenda on the role of gender in scientific research.