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RN10_10a_IC: Language Education and School Participation
2:00pm - 3:30pm
Session Chair: Dinah Gross, University of Lausanne
Location:Intercontinental - Athenaeum CC I Athenaeum Intercontinental Hotel
Syngrou Avenue 89-93
Floor: Lobby Level
Possible approaches to the problem of not having a language exam by the end of university years
University of Debrecen, Hungary
In Hungary a number of students are not able to acquire the required language exam by the end of the university years. It is a very actual problem in our education system, so in this study I make an attempt to reveal its reasons by finding the possible approaches to the question. I intend to gain up this problem from three possible ways. Firstly I deal with the disadvantageous students; I try to reveal the root or origin of their drawbacks. There are numerous factors of students’ socio-biology that make them different from the average. In the second part we try to understand the language learner types, which contain three categories: institutional learning, extracurricular language learning and having supportive free time activities. The last approach to the problem is from the view of language pedagogy. In this part I examine mainly the methodology, the mediation of the language content. To one part of my survey I used quantitative method and I asked students about their schooling, language lessons, residence, cultural life and parents. To the other part I used qualitative method by asking teachers about their opinion of the Hungarian education system, methodology, motivation and disadvantageous students. The results show that the people who did not manage to acquire a language exam by the end of the university years are disadvantageous in the respect of their social strata and residence.
Teaching Monolingualism in the Multilingual School. An Institutional Ethnography of the Reproduction of Linguistic, Racial and Social Inequalities within the Austrian Educational System
University of Vienna, Austria
Multilingualism is an essential part of everyday life in Viennese secondary schools. A majority of pupils (and some teachers) think and chat in different languages. Furthermore, communication among teachers, pupils and parents is often only possible through translations by dedicated neighbors, pupils, relatives or multilingual teachers. Nevertheless, the German language remains the sole official language of teaching and communication in schools. This contradiction between lived multilingualism and official monolingualism, as well as its entanglement with the neoliberal restructuring of the Austrian educational system, creates a wide range of challenges for pupils, parents and teachers.
In this paper, I adopt the perspective of secondary school teachers on this situation, describing their ordinary practices and the related challenges they face. The aim of this paper is to map parts of the complex ruling relations that structure teachers’ everyday school life and hinder democratic education for multilingual pupils. As a sociologist and secondary teacher, I draw on the methodological strategies of institutional ethnography and auto-ethnography. My dual role enables a critical analysis of the educational reproduction of linguistic, racial and social inequalities by acknowledging secondary teachers’ local knowledge, practical experience and emancipatory strategies.
Universal Participation in School Education as a Historical Process in Japan
Chukyo University, Japan
This paper critically highlights characteristics distinctive to the Japanese education system, which emphasizes the idea of equality of school system, and further examines to what extent Japanese society’s universal participation in school education was indeed a historical product of its distinct path to modernity over the past 150 years. By delineating the historical process of developing universal participation in each educational stage, from primary to tertiary education, this paper focuses on the relation between education and social class, particularly observing how social class in Japan has been formed throughout school education. This paper delineates the process into four sections. The first is the introduction of mass education to Japan, when primary education had been nominally universalized by the Meiji state to create a new social mobility from 1872 to 1900. The second stage involved the expansion of secondary education in the early twentieth century to strengthen a new class division, though this division remained only for a short time and transformed once more due to the mobilization of war. The third stage involved the expansion of upper secondary education from the early 1950s to the early 1970s, when enrollment rates of upper secondary schools (high schools) increased from 50% to 90%. Lastly, after deregulating rules regarding the institutional foundation of higher education from the late 1980s, the enrollment rate of higher education expanded from 30% to 50% over the course of fifteen years, and higher education also reached the universal stage, implying that the meaning of achieving class mobility via meritocracy had transformed once more.