Why live in Marinaleda? An analysis of individual motive for living in a social movement community
University of Leicester, United Kingdom
The main objective of this research project is to illustrate why people choose to live in Marinaleda; an agricultural community in the Seville Province of Spain described as a ‘Communist Utopia’. Villagers are regularly involved in a struggle to create and maintain their style of cooperative, with actions ranging from expropriating local land from aristocrats, to providing for the unemployed of the region through, for example, raiding supermarkets. The village is thus viewed throughout the project as a form of social movement, fitting in line with Bloomers (1988) definition “A collective enterprise that establishes a new system of living”. This qualitative study analyses motive for participation, focusing on the principle themes found in relevant literature such as personal interest, relating to social and economic benefits, and of collective identity. From this study it was found that personal benefit should be seen as a departure point for participation and thus inhabitancy. The idea of collective identity, with key links to shared ideological values, was however, seen as the current most important factor in inhabitancy. This ultimately showed a transformation of participation motives, showing how collective action and shared experiences change motives.
Solidarity economy and rights-based approach
University of Eastern Finland, Finland
Solidarity economy is a global civic movement and, also, takes form as a wide range of grassroots economic activities creating alternatives to capitalism with a bottom-up approach. Solidarity economy is most often defined through a set of ethical principles that guide the activities and decision-making. The ethical values like equality, democracy, and reciprocity set a basis for activities that can vary from producer or consumer cooperatives to time-banking and from collective savings unions to participatory budgeting. Solidarity economy is seen to have a rather political character because it is trying to expand the concept of the economy by changing the way of seeing economy purely as a private matter and focused on striving for profit. Instead of this, the aim is to increase people’s possibilities and ability to make economic decisions about their own lives and strengthen the well-being of people and environment.
In my presentation, I will focus on the ethical basis of solidarity economy and do an analysis about solidarity economy through a rights-based approach. Could solidarity economy and its diverse activities have an impact on human rights? I will be looking at theoretical and practical connections between solidarity economy and rights and give some examples in the context of Bolivia where I am conducting my field research for my PhD research about solidarity economy and rights.
Copperatives as a tool to intorduce economic democracy to the market
University of Warsaw, Poland
Modern economic business models, in opposition to most of the modern european political systems, still continue to function with a somewhat outdated hierarchical model of power. This means that for the majority of companies there is a very significant division between employees and employers, and their respective roles and rights within a firm.
Cooperatives are one of the models which are based on the idea of introducing democracy into company structure. These are companies which give equal rights to their workers, including the right to express their opinion, for these opinions to be heard and considered, to take part in the decision making process by participating in the voting, and to share the responsibility and profits for their collective work evenly. Studies reveal that employees working for such companies not only are happier, more satisfied, and earn larger salaries, but also are more productive and engaged. Also cooperative modeled companies are more flexible to the changes of the market than traditional ones, which gives them greater stability during times of economic crisis. Furthermore, in general they are much more beneficial to local markets because their profits are evenly distributed to the workers who spend locally and improve local money circulation instead of being transferred to owners and other financial institutions often far away from these markets. This approach not only changes workers attitude towards the company, but also makes a certain changes in the way they thing about participation and creation outside their workplace. Also cooperatives tend to promote other good values, such as ecology, respect for natural resources, waste reduction, alternative energy, animal rights, fair trade, bio-agriculture. They are serious althernative to capitalistic model.
The Sustainable Economic Policies in IRAN
1University of Tehran, Iran, Islamic Republic of; 2Islamic Azad University, Iran, Islamic Republic of
The concept of Sustainable development consists of many different aspects which all of them emphasize on managing resources due to the future. Policies and making policies are the main tools that help government does the best. So they should make policies due to local needs, capabilities and regional features. But if not, it will lead to inappropriate distributing the population, resources, facilities and provisions activities, spatial imbalances and social inequality. This article focuses on two elements of the fourth and fifth development plans as two last macro plans in Iran: “sustainable planning" and "economic policies", by using descriptive analysis to explain what is behind the macro development plans. The results show that: there is an attention to just a part of all indicators which is related to distribution facilities and provisions activities. We have used a content analysis of main texts in development plans. In addition analysis of the fifth development plan with the same measure indicates that: there are not laws which are related to indicators such as the demographic indicators through planning, providing spatial zoning (city or village) as a place where economic policies are done and zoning space is based by immigration. In addition there is an attention to the spatial distribution aspect of development the fourth development plan which is neglected in fifth development plan. Additionally, comparative study shows that there is many advantages in the fourth Development Plan than the fifth.
Keywords: Economic policies, Content analysis, Sustainable planning, IRAN.