Just My Luck! Can Random Selection Dampen Hubris?
University of Zurich, Switzerland
There has been a debate on whether manager selection through competition fosters hubris in the successful applicants (e.g. Hayward & Hambrick 1997). As an alternative selection procedure, which should not give rise to hubris, a combination of performance selection and random selection has been suggested (Frey & Osterloh 2016). Although there is ample indirect evidence for the hubris hypothesis (e.g. Homberg & Osterloh 2010), it is nearly impossible to directly test the hypothesis with field data. This holds even more for the question of whether a combination of performance selection and random selection could solve the problem.
In the experiment, subjects will be selected as group-managers. In the random selection treatment (i.e. the control treatment), the group-manager will be selected randomly. In the performance selection treatment, the highest-performing subject will be selected. In the performance/random selection treatment, a combination of both selection methods will determine the manager. Then, hubris will be measured. For this purpose, the managers (and also the other group members) will divide a sum of money between themselves and the other group members (behavioural measure). Additionally, the subjects will answer the hubris sub-scale of the Narcissist Personality Inventory and the Self-Efficacy-Scale and they will state their perceived fairness of the selection rule.
The experimental design will allow us testing whether performance selection fosters hubris in the selected individual (1), whether a combined performance/random selection method dampens hubris as suggested by Frey & Osterloh (2) and it will additionally provide us with a fairness evaluation of the different selection methods (3).
At the time of writing this abstract, no data has yet been generated.
The public support towards entrepreneurship in Belarus: we are all a little bit puzzled
Belarusian State University, Belarus
In post-Soviet economies like Belarus social integration of entrepreneurs is overly dependent on public opinion. Public opinion surveys on entrepreneurship are conducted with a small number of issues under discussion by selectively questioning the overall population. The empirical base is the republican opinion survey Belarus-2030 conducted by the Institute of Sociology of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus (Minsk) in 2014. A representative quota sampling with elements of random selection was used to choose respondents. The sample volume is 1495 respondents. According to this research, the most significant problems for small and medium businesses in Belarus are the insufficiency of start-up budget and working capital (40.3%), corruption of the authorities and officials (39.7%), administrative burdens in the areas of registration, licensing, etc. (32.1%). In the years to come, in terms of providing a favorable business environment, it is necessary to provide ease of opening business (36.8%) and legal stability, transparency (34.1%), to increase accessibility and quality of state services for business (30.6%). The current situation in Belarusian economics towards entrepreneurship is “rather favorable” (27.8%) and “favorable” (9.6%), “rather unfavorable” (25.1%) and “unfavorable” (8.8%), 27.7% of respondents were undecided, 0.8% did not answer. The population considers that entrepreneurs contribute to the development of economy (79.5%), pay taxes (75.5%), create new jobs (77.3%). However, 36.2% of Belarusians have a positive attitude towards entrepreneurs, 35.7% – neutral, 9.9% – negative, 17.8% – undecided, 0.4% – no answer. Thus, Belarusian public opinion highly appreciates the economic role of entrepreneurship, but Belarusians are uncertain about entrepreneurship as a phenomenon as a whole.
Keywords: entrepreneurship, public opinion, Belarus.
Costs of informal networking in the South-East Europe: an empirical investigation
1School of Economics and Business University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 2Center for Intradisciplinary Social Applied Research, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 3Law Faculty "Justinian I", UKIM Skopje, FYR Macedonia
As the core pillar of informal institutional environment, informal networks serve variety of purposes, from exchange of information, experience and ideas between agents to provision of goods, services, and favours that are not freely exchanged on the market. Establishing, maintaining and expanding informal networks is not free. While the existing literature investigates transaction costs of formal institutions, informal costs of networking remain a neglected dimension. This paper discusses costs of informal networking of established businesses in a South-East European (SEE) region. The paper is based on quantitative and qualitative data coming from 56 semi-structured interviews conducted in five SEE countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Serbia, and Slovenia.
The paper starts by investigating the presence and purpose of informal networking, since many studies indicate a widespread informality in SEE region, mainly created as a substitute for inefficient formal institutions. The main research attention is on informal networking costs; this work provides information on their respective size, structure and a comparative dimension for different sub-samples. We also investigate how these informal costs are associated with networking in terms of size and type of informal networks (e.g. strong vs. weak ties). In addition, the research links the size of informal costs to the interplay between formal and informal institutional environments in these countries.
Work experiences and attitudes towards work of long-term Romanian migrants
Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, CeSMiG University of Bucharest, Romania
The presentation explores the adaptive nature of work values and attitudes towards work in the case of Romanian people with international migration experiences. Using a qualitative approach based on in-depth interviews conducted with low skilled returnees, the analysis is built on the idea that long-term migration experience (at least 5 years abroad) influences people’s attitudes towards work and affects their work values. Usually, scholarship done in migration studies emphasizes differences in attitudes towards work between natives of the county of destination and immigrants, but this presentation is rather focused on the evolution of work values and work experiences before, during and after migration. Returnees’ subjective stories about work in Romania and abroad will constitute the raw material for differentiating between different types of migratory experiences. A special category of migrants includes people who emigrated immediately after completing their education and who had their first work experiences abroad and not in Romania – in this case the transition from education to work is overlapped on their migration experience. At the same time, the presentation will analyze if human capital related to work is transferable from one national context into another (from origin to destination and vice versa). On the one hand, the preliminary analysis of the qualitative data allows us to propose a tentative typology of returnees’ work trajectories related to these three periods of time: before, during and after the experience of migration. On the other hand, we emphasize how the migration experience reinforced or changed returnees’ work values and attitudes towards work.