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Session Overview
Session
RN08_03a_P: New Faces of Terrorism in the Contemporary World
Time:
Wednesday, 30/Aug/2017:
6:00pm - 7:30pm

Session Chair: Nicholas Petropoulos, Pedagogical Institute of Greece (formerly)
Location: PC.2.10
PANTEION University of Social & Political Sciences 136 Syggrou Avenue 17671 Athens, Greece Building: C, Level: 2.

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Presentations

Islamist factor impact on local conflicts

Zhanna B. Onzimba Lenyungo, Violetta A. Annikova, Helen A. Markova

RUDN University, Russian Federation

Recent years have seen growing tension between Muslim and Christian communities, among Muslim communities of different branches and political factions within the same community. Members of these factions proclaim their major if not the only objective - enforced establishment of the "Islamic government", "Islamic state."

Such aggression leads to crisis situations escalating into local conflicts with protracted nature which threat to international security.

Russia has not remained aloof from global trends. Since the second half of the 1990s, the active dissemination of various forms of Salafism and Islamism has begun, especially in Chechnya and Dagestan. Polls show that religious extremism is caused by such factors as corruption in the government with its oligarchic character, moral degradation of society, religious illiteracy, social system tribalism and the influence of international Muslim organizations.

The Islamic movement in Russia does not have deep historical roots. It has a diffuse character. But it gradually draws into its orbit, not only the Muslims, but also those who have nothing to do with Islam in their origin, education and culture, spreading to new regions - even where the Muslims represent a small minority.

The extent of Islamist movement radicalization is determined not so much by domestic but political and military situation in the Middle East, as well as the nature of Russia involvement in these processes.

The whole world community is to consolidate all its efforts today to overcome local and global conflicts on ethnic and religious grounds.


New Modes of Political Violence: The Case of Turkey

Can Güven

Boğaziçi University, Turkey

The course of political events in contemporary Turkey evokes a general sense of unsustainability and decadence. While the crisis appears to be multifaceted, as one could trace it in the domain of economy or in the institutional level, what is at stake and what appears to me to be more decisive is that, the emergence of constant threat of different modes of violence that increasingly have an ambiguous relation to politics. Be it implemented by state actors (in its peak razing cities as in the cases of Şırnak, Cizre, and other Kurdish settlements) or non-state actors (as in the cases of attacks targeting civilians intentionally or unintentionally) what seems to be as common is that violence enters the sphere of everyday life, or more precisely networks of life processes, and radically traverses it. This essay attempts to critically analyze the current context prevalent in Turkey on three levels in order to expand upon current political strategies to move from it: Firstly, it focuses on how these new modes of violence operate through examination of the conduct of warfare. Secondly, it raises a question of whether or not this emergence of new modes of political violence correspond to a transition in the modalities of power relations (precisely in the grass-roots levels). And lastly, this essay draws attention to the issue of the production of subjectivities by way of analyzing how power relations operate and resistance emerges through social networks, and also the affective dynamics that are embedded in.


Terror and Community Resilience: Long Term Impact on Community Stability

Alan {Avi} KIRSCHENBAUM

Kirschenbaum Consulting Ltd, Israel

Conditions of continuous and extreme threats to lives and property can theoretically lead to a possible breakdown of existing community social structures or, on the contrary, toward enhancing community social cohesiveness. To examine these alternative possibilities, a research strategy was chosen to evaluate the impact of continuous extreme terror attacks on community social life. The study design compared community behaviors prior to ongoing terror attacks with community behaviors after five years of ongoing terror attacks. The study incorporated two Israeli communities formally in and near the Gaza Strip, based on a random sample of 370 household heads responding to a structured interview questionnaire. Pre-terror behaviors from a national random sample were compared to corresponding behaviors in the communities under terror attacks. Employing a measure of “Community Social Cohesion”, a composite of social network densities, levels of risk perceptions and disaster preparedness components, the results pointed toward a general strengthening of community-oriented behaviors. While risk perceptions rose dramatically, reflecting the reality of five years of terror, key measures of social network densities also increased in strength. Interestingly, the levels of preparedness generally declined. These adaptive survival strategies inherent in community based social networks provided proof that even under extreme conditions of constant terror attacks, social capital inherent in the ability to form various informal social network based organizations can, and do, enhance community cohesiveness and ameliorate the reality of annihilation.



 
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