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RN02_02b_P: Institutionalization and Innovation in Cultural Industries
4:00pm - 5:30pm
Session Chair: Chris Mathieu, Lund University
Location:PA.1.2 PANTEION University of Social & Political Sciences
136 Syggrou Avenue
17671 Athens, Greece
Building: A, Level: 1.
The dynamics of dance: a cross-national comparison of the institutionalization of electronic/dance music in the US and UK
Alex van Venrooij, Rens Wilderom
University of Amsterdam, Netherlands, The
The historical development of electronic/dance music raises an interesting empirical puzzle: while “house” and “techno” music originally emerged in the early to mid-1980s in local music scenes of Chicago, Detroit and New York, the institutionalization and commercialization of this genre occurred predominantly in the UK and other European countries. In this paper we aim to account for the difference between the “successful” trajectory of dance music scenes in the UK compared to the scene development in US. Which factors enabled or constrained the development of the scene-based genre into an industry-genre in the UK, and why did it fail to make this transition in the US? We draw upon theoretical frameworks from social movement analysis and organizational studies to show how the interaction between established field structures and processes of social movement/scene development can account for cross-national variations in the trajectory of dance. We especially focus on cross-national difference in two exogenous field structures that helped and/or blocked the trajectory of dance music: the opportunities provided by the media field and recording industry field. The analysis shows that, paradoxically, the commercial market structure that inhibited the successful commercialization of dance in the US provided chances for the success of dance in the UK due to its specific constellation of the media field.
A cinema made in Europe? On the creation, production and marketing of contemporary Greek cinema.
Maria Papadopoulou, Eirini Sifaki, Anastasia Stamou
Hellenic Open University, Greece
Recent film production has been greatly influenced by the European Union’s legislation, funding and programs such as Creative Europe. This presentation examines the strategies used to create, produce, distribute and promote a number of recent Greek films that have become widely associated with the label « New Greek Wave» or «Weird Cinema». We will first explore the context and the agents in the specific art market that have enabled the emergence of a particular trend in Greek cinema, discussing the advent of a new generation of filmmakers and producers nurtured by European cultural projects and mobility and their ability to make aesthetic virtue out of economic necessity. Special insight will be given to the training, development and funding activities available to European directors and producers to develop and promote their works at an international level (training initiatives, talent campuses, script and project development labs, professional networks, databases, on line platforms, etc). The role played by festival markets, co-production schemes but also world sales agents in the further promotion and commercial exploitation of these films will be also discussed. Our analysis results from the extensive study of scientific literature, national and international film reviews, European institutions and gatekeepers’ public discourse and advertising material. Arguably, all these European initiatives and emerging “art worlds” have a great impact not only on the global exposure of contemporary Greek Cinema but also on the artistic practices and identity of the creative process. This research project was funded by the European Parliament (MEP G. Grammatikakis).
Clients and Film Production Networks
The University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Filmmakers and production networks have often found themselves at the heart of academic debates around flexible work due to the project-based organisation of the film industries. Indeed, as a means of reducing uncertainty over securing future work, filmmakers are flexibly specialized (Christopherson and Storper), form semi-permanent workgroups (Blair), and collaborate repeatedly with colleagues from successful projects. Filmmaking careers are “crafted” over time (Jones) in social network markets (Potts et al) characterised by significant overlap between different ‘types’ of work such as television, film and advertising. Little attention has been given to the sheer number and variety of clients filmmakers and production networks are commissioned by, however. Based on an ethnography of networks of film production in Beirut, I investigate how filmmakers ‘manage’ this variety of clients. By drawing upon social network analytic techniques of block modelling and the concept of structural equivalence, I demonstrate how different clients influence the structure of the production network in different phases of the production process (cf Santagata). Further, I argue that client management is a considerable part of production work that filmmakers and production networks take under serious consideration during the production process and between projects. As successful as certain projects might be, the decision-making process on future work is also shaped by the filmmakers’ and production networks’ evaluation of the ‘fit’ between them and the client.