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Session Overview
RN02_01a_P: Gendered Inequalities and Careers in the Arts
Wednesday, 30/Aug/2017:
2:00pm - 3:30pm

Session Chair: Annette Grigoleit, Leuphana University Luenburg
Location: PA.1.1
PANTEION University of Social & Political Sciences 136 Syggrou Avenue 17671 Athens, Greece Building: A, Level: 1.

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Beyond artistic vocation : A gender admission process of men and women candidates to an artistic career

Mathilde Provansal

Université Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne, France

Women visual artists tend to disappear from the top of artistic rankings and continue to have a dominated position in the contemporary visual art world. Yet about half of the French visual artists are women, and french art schools have been predominantly feminine for the past thirty years. In this presentation, I analyze the ways gender differences emerge in professional trajectories through the analysis of one particular moment that precedes the entrance into an artistic career, the admission to art school. I observed the admission interviews of 87 candidates and the jury deliberations. Some professors and 50 former students of the school were interviewed too. Observing the oral admission exam to the École des Arts Plastiques reveals the criteria used by jury members to decide between those who can attempt an artistic career and outsiders. I show that women face gendered representations. This may affect early on their experience in art school and their future artistic career.

The arts, a men’s world. Gender inequalities in artists’ labour markets

Jessy Siongers, Astrid Van Steen

Ghent University, Belgium

The artistic labour market is characterized by a-typical employment conditions, often demanding extreme flexibility and resulting in uncertain and precarious career prospects. Over the past years there has been an increase in studies on this precarious position of creative workers. These studies invariably point at elements such as under-payment, unemployment, multiple job holding, difficulties with copyrights, contract negotiations and many more. Also, they all point out that this precarious situation affects female artists more than their male counterparts.

Most of these studies focus on one specific discipline, in this paper we will use a comparative approach. To this end, we rely on data gathered in 2014 by means of an online survey among 2706 professional artists in Flanders. Artists active in different arts disciplines (audio-visual arts, visual arts, music, literature and performing arts) participated in this study. In our paper, we first describe the gender differences in employment conditions (artistic vs. non-artistic activities, unemployment, income, job satisfaction) in the studied arts disciplines and examine which disciplines are more female-friendly than others. Secondly, we examine which features cause these gender differences and which aspects have an influence on female artistic careers. By means of multivariate statistical analysis we look at supporting as well as inhibiting factors (working conditions, domestic conditions, education and training, ... ) of female artistic careers.

Female Filmmakers’ Challenges in Creative Work. Cases of Hungarian Female Filmmakers from Romania

Emese Biró1, Andrea Virginás2

1Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church in Hungary, Hungary; 2Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania, Romania

Female filmmakers are still underrepresented in East European film production, and the factors influencing their entrance to the film production field, as well as their success or failure to remain active in the field needs to be examined. This is an important aim of our research titled Hungarian Female Filmmakers in Eastern European Film Production. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with female filmmakers working as directors, script-writers, producers, editors or actresses. Besides this small-sample in-depth interviewing, we also selected a sample of relevant press interviews made with our interviewees and we conducted a thematic analysis of these articles, in order to compare the result with our previous findings. Besides the entrance and ‘survival’ strategies in the film production, another important focus of our study was on creative female filmmaking practices. Do they see their creative work as a teamwork-based activity or an individual struggle? How do they perceive their own role in the creative process, decision-making, fundraising, promotion and other aspects? How does their gender and minority background (female Hungarian filmmakers from Romania) influence the above mentioned aspects? What is the role of international cooperation in their filmmaking possibilities and practices? We also examined how they use their own related personal experiences in their films, especially the fact that some of them are also characterized by geographic mobility. Finally, we used the 2016 research report of the EWA (European Women’s Audiovisual Network) referring to female directorial participation in six national film industries in Europe as a background to contextualize our own results.

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