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Session Chair: Minna Zechner, Seinäjoki University of Applied Sciences
Location:Intercontinental - Ypsilon II Athenaeum Intercontinental Hotel
Syngrou Avenue 89-93
Floor: Level 1
The scarring effects of unemployment on the realized retirement age
Helsinki University, Finland
Researchers have long established that unemployment spells can influence the further career progression. They found that unemployment spells, for example, increase the probability of experiencing additional unemployment spells and slow down career advancement. Such effects of unemployment are sometimes labelled scarring effects. Previous studies document scarring effects on the short- and mid-term. This analysis takes a step beyond previous studies in that it explores scarring effects in a long-term perspective, investigating the scarring effects of unemployment on the realized retirement age. The research questions are: Over how long a period of time can unemployment spells influence the realized retirement age? And are there country- and gender-differences in this influence? The analysis is a time-lagged analysis of international longitudinal microdata from the life history interviews of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. Findings show that unemployment spells can indeed influence the realized retirement age, with unemployment spells directly proceeding retirement being particularly influential. Moreover, within- and between-country differences in this influence exist. An important reason for differences in the influence of unemployment spells is the existence of previous periods of non-employment. Such periods of non-employment determine when individuals reach the minimum contribution period to pension schemes, meaning whether or not they have the option to retire early. Thus, periods of non-employment constitute a mediator that determines whether unemployment spells can have a scarring effect on the realized retirement age.
Which factors influence premium deferred retirement decision?
Sabrina AOUICI, Julie ROCHUT
Reaching full rate age appears as a central parameter in the decision-making process of future retirees. Most people leave as soon as possible (as they reach a full pension). However, some retirees delay their retirement. This article attempts to understand the determinants that influence the premium decision, as a deviation from full rate standard. Based on data from the "Retirement Intentions" survey (2005), matched with administrative data from the French National Social Security Scheme (Cnav), we estimate the probability of using premium and the number of trimesters deferred. A qualitative approach based on semi directive interviews among retired baby-boomers is added. Our cross-disciplinary work enhances the complexity of the decision process (subjective or objective criteria). The professional status is a significant marker of the choice to retire with a premium: being a manager and having a high income increase the probability to defer retirement with premium. Moreover, those who anticipate economic difficulties also have a more important propensity to be concerned by the premium. Furthermore, home buyers are more likely to extend working life, probably in order to face out their home loan. At the same time, many baby-boomers think that they should be involved in taking care of a member of their family during their retirement (either a child, a spouse or an elderly parent), which give incentives to use the premium to maximize their resources.
The effect of retaining measures on retirement timing —depending on companies’ possibility to adjust work time arrangement
Tove Midtsundstad, Åsmund Hermansen
Offering retaining measures, like phased retirement or additional leave to older workers has become a widespread strategy to promote longer working careers in Norway (Midtsundstad 2015, Hermansen & Midtsundstad 2015, Eurofound 2016). However, analysis of these measures shows that the possibility of phased retirement does not affect older workers timing of retirement in Norway (Hermansen 2015). Studies also show that companies’ possibility to offer reduced working hours varies significantly (Midtsundstad & Bogen 2011, Midtsundstad 2014). The aim of this paper is to examine to what degree the effect of phased retirement are dependent on companies’ perceived possibilities to adjust their working time arrangement.
The research questions are investigated using data from a surveys carried out among a representative sample of Norwegian companies in 2010 combined with individual register data of all employees in these companies over the period 2000-2012. We use an individual fixed-effects model (difference-in-difference approach) in combination with a linear probability model.
Changing fields of occupation, hysteresis and retirement
Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Germany
In the recent decades there have been profound economic changes and changes within work-ing conditions. Based on data of a qualitative study I would like to illustrate the interplay of employees with these changes in the past and its impact on early withdrawal from paid em-ployment.
In our qualitative study in which 31 older people who were either still working, respectively intending to work at the age of 63, or who left work before the age of 63 were interviewed. The study specifically focuses on several occupational groups in Germany: nurses, bank clerks, and metal workers. It aims to examine why some older people retire early while some others work longer.
In all occupational groups retirees mentioned major changes within their field of occupation in the last decade of their working live. Those changes posed challenges for these workers because it produced a conflict between their standards and their idea of “good work” in their specific occupation on the one hand and what was expected of them during and after restruc-turing through new established norms, values and working routines on the other hand.
This can be interpreted using the Bourdieuian term of hysteresis, which describes the gap be-tween habitus and changing field conditions. By doing so, the cultural and structural aspects of job dissatisfaction, as a factor for leaving paid employment earlier, can be illuminated as well as how structures and individual lives are linked through the life course.