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Session Overview
RN01_01c_IC: Inequalities
Wednesday, 30/Aug/2017:
2:00pm - 3:30pm

Session Chair: Hans-Joachim Reinhard, University of Applied Sciences Fulda
Location: Intercontinental - Ypsilon I
Athenaeum Intercontinental Hotel Syngrou Avenue 89-93 Athens, Greece Floor: Level 1

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Inequalities in the broken heart syndrome

Filip Oskar Teodor Wigselius

Stockholm University, Sweden

Excess mortality after widowhood differs for men and women. Previous studies also have shown that socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with factors, e.g. access to social- and other types of support, which have a bearing on the widowhood effect. I argue, that theory indicates an interaction between gender and SES. As both, the number of widows/widowers and the diversity in SES is increasing, it is necessary to examine these factors jointly.

First results using panel data of from the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD), confirm the hypothesis that the relationship between SES and the widowhood effect differs between women and men. The widowhood effect was relatively larger among women with higher socioeconomic status among those with lower, while no differences were found among men. Analyses using Swedish total population register data will be ready in time for the ESA meeting.

What Equality? Life Course Diversity and Inequality in Later Life in Changing Sweden

Andreas Motel-Klingebiel, Susanne Kelfve

Linköping University, Sweden

This paper discusses shifts in inequality over time in Sweden, which serves as a case example of a quickly changing welfare society. Its 60+ population of today faced the golden age of capitalism, prosperity and welfare but also crises, new uncertainties, erosions and shifts in social norms and organisation of labour. These changes add to life course inhomogeneity, generate asynchronies, and create winners and losers regarding life chances and inclusion. Transformations in life courses and social institutions exacerbate the cumulation of (dis)advantage and have crucial impacts on employment, retirement transitions and later life. Aspects like gender, cohort, education, ethnicity and others moderate these dynamics. Increasing disparities between societies give rise to migration and contribute in turn to differences within countries. This study deals with changing population compositions, patterns and later-life consequences of life courses in Sweden focusing on inter- and intra-cohort disparities. By taking an international comparative perspective, Swedish trends are contrasted with those in other European societies. Based on extensive Swedish registry information and European survey data from EU-SILC this study assesses changes in trajectories and distributions in a cohortsequential perspective. Results find significant shifts in life course patterns that are fortified by variations in population compositions with disadvantaged groups as forerunners in overall relative declines in later-life economic positions, and increasing intracohort inequalities corresponding with unexpected drawbacks for many as well as new possibilities for others

Paid work after retirement and marital quality: Are there differences between men and women?

Andreas Mergenthaler, Volker Cihlar

Federal Institute for Population Research, Germany

Background: Paid work after retirement has increased in Germany during the last years. Several studies have addressed the prevalence of post-retirement work and its associating factors. However, the association between post-retirement work and marital quality as an indicator of retirement adjustment has not been studied in Germany so far. The study addressed the question (i) whether post-retirement work is associated with marital quality and (ii) whether this association is moderated by gender.

Data and method: The survey “Transitions and Old Age Potential” (TOP), a representative sample of 5,002 respondents aged 55 to 70 years was used. Two indicators of marital quality were analysed in hierarchical binary regressions: Subjectively rated change in partnership since retirement and partnership satisfaction. Post-retirement work was included as a binary indicator along with socio-demographic and transition-related variables, especially gender and the interaction between gender and employment status in retirement.

Results: The results show that paid work in retirement is not directly associated with marital quality, neither for men nor for women. However, the association between post-retirement work and the subjective change of the partnership quality after retirement was moderated by gender. Women in paid work after retirement had a significantly higher probability of reporting no change or a worsening partnership quality compared to male respondents.

Discussion: The findings of the study add to the international debate by focusing on the setting of a conservative welfare state like Germany. It emphasizes the importance of a gender-related perspective. However, further longitudinal analyses are needed to address questions of causal inference.

Population ageing in Russia

Elena Nikolaevna Gorbaneva

NRU HSE, Russian Federation

The last decades of the demographic processes in both developed and developing countries are characterized by population aging. Shifts in the demographic structure determines the main directions of development of health and social protection based on determinants of healthy longevity among the main of which deals with the social status of the elderly, their health status, level of efficiency and mental state

Of particular practical significance at the present stage is a series of annual nationwide representative surveys on the basis of probabilistic stratified multistage territorial sample developed with the participation of leading experts in this field, which is an international research project National research University - Higher school of Economics and ZAO "Demoscope" with the participation of the population Center University of North Carolina at chapel hill (USA) and the Institute of sociology. Since 2010, the project received a new name "the Russian monitoring of economic situation and population health of the HSE" (RLMS-HSE). The results of these studies served as the basis for the work of the M. Kolosnitsyna, N. Khorkina and H. Dorzhieva "What Happens To Happiness When People Get Older? Socio-Economic Determinants Of Life Satisfaction In Later Life", which examines the satisfaction of the elderly life and, as a consequence, identifying key factors to healthy longevity.

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